Cordia angustifolia (H.West) Roem. & Schult.
Cordia brevispicata M.Martens & Galeotti
Cordia canescens Kunth
Cordia chacoensis Chodat
Cordia chepensis Pittier
Cordia cuneiformis A.DC.
Cordia curassavica (Jacq.) Roem. & Schult.
Cordia cylindrostachya interrupta (A.DC.) Griseb.
Cordia divaricata Kunth
Cordia graveolens Kunth
Cordia guianensis (Desv.) Roem. & Schult.
Cordia hirsuta Fresen.
Cordia hispida Benth.
Cordia imparilis J.F. Macbr.
Cordia interrupta A.DC.
Cordia intonsa I.M.Johnst.
Cordia linearis A.DC.
Cordia littoralis Pittier
Cordia macrostachya (Jacq.) Roem. & Schult.
Cordia macuirensis Dugand & I.M.Johnst.
Cordia martinicensis Link
Cordia mollis Pittier
Cordia obliqua (Ruiz & Pav.) Kunth
Cordia oxyphylla A.DC.
Cordia palmeri S. Watson
Cordia peruviana mexicana A.DC.
Cordia rugosa Willd.
Cordia salicina A.DC.
Cordia socorrensis Brandegee
Cordia spicata Willd. ex Schult.
Cordia stenophylla Alain
Cordia tobagensis Urb.
Cordia verbenacea A.DC.
Lantana bullata L.
Lithocardium angustifolium Kuntze
Lithocardium brevispicatum (M.Martens & Galeotti) Kuntze
Lithocardium canescens (Kunth) Kuntze
Lithocardium cuneiforme (A.DC.) Kuntze
Lithocardium curassavicum (Jacq.) Kuntze
Lithocardium divaricatum (Kunth) Kuntze
Lithocardium hispidum (Benth.) Kuntze
Lithocardium lineare (A.DC.) Kuntze
Lithocardium macrostachyum (Jacq.) Kuntze
Lithocardium oxyphyllum (A.DC.) Kuntze
Lithocardium salicinum (A.DC.) Kuntze
Lithocardium verbenaceum (A.DC.) Kuntze
Montjolya angustifolia (H.West) Friesen
Montjolya bullata (L.) Friesen
Montjolya guianensis (Desv.) Friesen
Varronia angustifolia H.West
Varronia brevispicata (M.Martens & Galeotti) Borhidi
Varronia chacoensis (Chodat) Borhidi
Varronia cuneiformis (A.DC.) Borhidi
Varronia divaricata (Kunth) Borhidi
Varronia graveolens (Kunth) Borhidi
Varronia guianensis Desv.
Varronia hispida (Benth.) Borhidi
Varronia interrupta (A.DC.) Borhidi
Varronia intonsa (I.M.Johnst.) J.S.Mill.
Varronia linearis Pav. ex A.DC.
Varronia macrostachya Jacq.
Varronia martinicensis Lam.
Varronia oxyphylla (A.DC.) Borhidi
Varronia rugosa Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.
Varronia salicina (A.DC.) Borhidi
Varronia verbenacea (A.DC.) Borhidi
Common Name: Black Sage
Varronia curassavica is an erect shrub, branching mainly from the base and growing up to 3 metres tall[
The plant is harvested from the wild for local use as a medicine and source of fibre. A popular herbal treatment, it is sometimes sold in local markets[
]. In the early 20th century, it was grown as a biological control, being planted in the borders of sugarcane fields to attract parasitizing wasps for biological control of an insect pest[
]. Today it is only a troublesome weed.
S. America - Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil, Bolivia, to Venezuela and the Guyanas; C. America - Panama to Mexico; Caribbean - Trinidad to Antigua.
Damp or dry thickets, hillsides, often in secondary growth areas and sometimes in oak forests, at elevations from sea level to 1,360 metres[
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The plant has escaped from cultivation in a number of areas, where it has become a nuisance. The seeds are dispersed widely by birds. The seedlings germinate in well-lit disturbed areas and grow quickly, forming dense thickets that can prevent regeneration or crowd out other vegetation[
The leaves are strongly scented[
Although we have seen no specific information for this species, the fruits of most Cordia (Varronia) species are comprised of a thin to fairly thick layer of pulpy, sweetish-tasting flesh surrounding a single seed and are more or less edible[
], (though some are known to cause gastric disturbances).
The leaves and young stems are anodyne, anti-inflammatory, aromatic, astringent, hypotensive, pectoral, stimulant, stomachic, sudorific and vulnerary[
]. An infusion is used to treat a range of digestive disorders including biliousness, grippe and diarrhoea, as well as fevers, rheumatism, menstrual cramps, gonorrhoea, colds and chest complaints[
]. The juice of finely crushed leaves is used for alleviating monthly stomach pains (menstrual cramps)[
]. The dried leaves are boiled in a liquid that is drunk to control heavy menstrual flow[
The leaves are mashed and applied topically to aid the healing of wounds[
]. The macerated leaves are used externally as a dandruff treatment, or are placed in a bath as a treatment for fever[
The leaves contain several medically active compounds including artemetin, which has been documented with significant anti-inflammatory actions[
The plant also contains naphthoquinones which have demonstrated antifungal activities against Cladosporium cucumerinum, Candida albicans and toxic properties against larvae of the yellow fever-transmitting mosquito[
Other studies have confirmed that the plant has anti-ulcer and gastro-protective actions at very low dosages; that is has a pain relieving effect; and that is has antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including 14 bacterial strains causing the most common gastrointestinal diseases[
The leaves are crushed and rubbed on the skin to prevent mosquito bites[
The plant used to be grown along sugarcane fields in order to attract parasitizing wasps for the biological control of an insect pest[
An essential oil obtained from the leaves is used as an ingredient in commercial cosmetic preparations as a fragrance[
The sap from the twigs has cleaning properties[
A fibre obtained from the plant is suitable for coarse cordage[
The stem is chewed until fibrous and then used to clean the teeth and destroy bad breath[
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