Triticum turgidum durum
Gigachilon polonicum durum (Desf.) Á.Löve
Triticum accessorium Flaksb.
Triticum aestivum durum (Desf.) Fiori
Triticum alatum Peterm.
Triticum algeriense Desf. ex Mert. & W.D.J.Koch
Triticum bauhinii Lag.
Triticum brachystachyum Lag. ex Schult. & Schult.f.
Triticum candissimum Bayle-Bar.
Triticum caucasicum Flaksb.
Triticum cevallos Lag.
Triticum cochleare Lag.
Triticum densiusculum Flaksb.
Triticum durum Desf.
Triticum fastuosum Lag.
Triticum hordeiforme Host
Triticum laxiusculum Flaksb.
Triticum longisemineum Flaksb.
Triticum maurorum Sennen
Triticum molle Roem. & Schult.
Triticum orientale Flaksb.
Triticum platystachyum Lag.
Triticum pruinosum Hornem.
Triticum pyramidale Percival
Triticum rarum Flaksb.
Triticum rimpaui Mackey
Triticum sativum durum (Desf.) K.Richt.
Triticum siculum Roem. & Schult.
Triticum tanaiticum Flaksb.
Triticum tiflisiense Flaksb.
Triticum tomentosum Bayle-Bar.
Triticum transcaucasicum Flaksb.
Triticum trevisium Desv.
Triticum villosum Host
Triticum vulgare bauhinii (Lag.) Alef.
Triticum vulgare durum (Desf.) Alef.
Triticum vulgare erion Alef.
Triticum vulgare hordeiforme (Host) Alef.
Triticum vulgare italicum Alef.
Triticum vulgare leptura Alef.
Triticum vulgare leucomelan Alef.
Triticum vulgare leucura Alef.
Triticum vulgare melanpus Alef.
Triticum vulgare provinciale Alef.
Common Name: Durum Wheat
Photograph by: Ximénex
Photograph by: Ximénex
Durum wheat is an annual, often strongly tufted grass that can grow up to 170cm tall[
This species of wheat produces a hard, gluten-rich seed that is particularly valued for making various pasta products such as macaroni, spaghetti and noodles. It arose in cultivation from emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum), perhaps around 6,000 BC and is now grown in many countris of the world from the temperate zone to the tropics, but most especially in the Mediterranean regions of Africa and Europe and in the Middle east.
Original habitat is obscure.
Developed through cultivation, it is not known in a truly wild location.
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Durum wheat probably arose in the Middle East but is now cultivated from the temperate to the tropical zone. In the tropics it is generally grown at higher elevations from xxx - xxx metres, or at lower elevations during the cool season. It grows best in areas where annual daytime temperatures are within the range 17 - 25°c, but can tolerate 6 - 30°c[
]. It prefers a mean annual rainfall in the range 500 - 700mm, but tolerates 400 - 800mm[
An easily grown plant, it succeeds in most well-drained, fertile soils in a sunny position. Prefers a pH in the range 6 - 7, tolerating 5.5 - 8.5[
]. Established plants are drought resistant[
Progress in improving yields of durum wheat has generally been slower than that in bread wheat. However, durum wheat grain yields of 5 - 6 tonnes per hectare can be obtained with irrigation, the use of improved cultivars and better production practices[
There are some named varieties[
A tetraploid species[
Seed - cooked[
]. The hard, transparent seed is especially rich in gluten. It is most commonly ground into a coarse flour (semolina) and used for making a range of pastas (spaghetti, noodles, lasagne etc), couscous, unleavened bread etc[
]. The grain is also cooked whole or cracked in a range of dished[
Durum wheat is not suitable for making cakes and leavened bread because of its high gluten content and dough strength[
The seed is used in making various alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks[
The straw has many uses, as a biomass for fuel etc, for thatching, as a mulch in the garden etc[
A fibre obtained from the stems is used for making paper[
]. The stems are harvested in late summer after the seed has been harvested, they are cut into usable pieces and soaked in clear water for 24 hours. They are then cooked for 2 hours in lye or soda ash and then beaten in a ball mill for 1½ hours in a ball mill. The fibres make a green-tan paper[
The starch from the seed is used for laundering, sizing textiles etc[
]. It can also be converted to alcohol for use as a fuel.
Seed - sow in situ. Germination occurs within a few days at temperatures of 4 - 37°c, the optimum being 12 - 25°c[
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