Frumentum triticum E.H.L.Krause
Triticum album Gaertn.
Triticum amylosum Flaksb.
Triticum antiquorum (Heer) Udachin
Triticum aristatum Haller f. ex Steud.
Triticum aristatum Schübl.
Triticum arundinaceum Schur
Triticum asiaticum Kudr.
Triticum bicolor Risso
Triticum bucharicum Flaksb.
Triticum caeruleum Ard. ex Bayle-Bar.
Triticum cereale Bernh.
Triticum cereale Schrank
Triticum clavatum Seidl ex Opiz
Triticum duriusculum Flaksb.
Triticum erinaceum Hornem.
Triticum ghelfa Risso
Triticum hexangulare Risso
Triticum hieminflatum Flaksb.
Triticum horstianum Clemente
Triticum hybernum L.
Triticum imberbe Desv.
Triticum inflatum Flaksb.
Triticum inflatum Kudr.
Triticum koeleri Clemente
Triticum labile Flaksb.
Triticum linnaeanum Lag.
Triticum lutinflatum Flaksb.
Triticum martius Risso
Triticum mauritanicum Risso
Triticum muticum Schübl.
Triticum pilosum Dalzell & A.Gibson
Triticum pilosum Hornem.
Triticum poltawense Flaksb.
Triticum pubescens Hornem.
Triticum pulverulentum Hornem.
Triticum quadratum Mill.
Triticum rossicum Flaksb.
Triticum rufinflatum Flaksb.
Triticum sativum Lam.
Triticum segetale Salisb.
Triticum sibiricum Flaksb.
Triticum siliginum Risso
Triticum spelta vavilovii (Jakubz.) L.B.Cai
Triticum sunpanii Flaksb.
Triticum tustella Risso
Triticum vavilovii Jakubz.
Triticum velutinum Schübl.
Triticum vulgare Vill.
Common Name: Bread Wheat
Bread wheat is an annual grass that can grow up to 150cm tall, usually producing 2 - 5 tillers, though up to 40 have been reported[
Bread wheat is one of the most important human food crops, providing a staple food for billions of people. It has been cultivated since about 5,000 BC and is now widely grown in most countries of the world.
Of uncertain origin, perhaps the Middle East or Armenia.
Not known in the wild.
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Bread wheat arose in southeast Europe and around the Caspian Sea, but is now widely cultivated from near the tropics to the colder regions of the temperate zone. It the tropics it is generally grown at elevations from 1,200 - 3,000 metres, or at lower elevations in the cool season[
]. It grows best in areas where annual daytime temperatures are within the range 15 - 23°c, but can tolerate 5 - 27°c[
]. When dormant, the plant can survive temperatures down to about -20°c, but young growth can be severely damaged at 0°c[
]. It prefers a mean annual rainfall in the range 750 - 900mm, but tolerates 300 - 1,600mm[
An easily grown plant, it prefers a sunny position in a rich well-drained soil. Prefers a pH in the range 6 - 7, tolerating 5.5 - 8.5[
For floral induction, spring types usually require temperatures between 7 - 18°c for 5 - 15 days, whilst winter types require temperatures between 0 - 7°c for 30 - 60 days. Flowering begins at the middle third of the spike and continues towards the basal and apical parts in 3 - 5 days. All spike-bearing tillers eventually flower almost simultaneously[
Wheat is normally self-pollinated; cross-pollination is 1 - 4%[
Commercially, wheat is classified into distinct categories of grain hardness (soft, medium-hard, and hard) and colour (red, white and amber)[
The complete crop cycle of bread wheat varies from 50 - 200 days in tropical Africa[
Maximum recorded grain yields of irrigated winter and spring wheats are 14 and 9.5 tonnes per hectare respectively; the absolute maximum yield, based on genetic potential, is estimated at 20 tonnes. Yields in the tropics are usually lower due to high temperatures and high humidity[
Based on growing habit, bread wheat is divided into two subclasses, spring or winter, but facultative types exist[
There are many named varieties[
Grows well with maize and with camomile in small quantities[
]. Dislikes dogwood, cherry, tulips, pine and poppies[
Seed - cooked. The seed can be cooked as a whole grain but it is more usually ground into a powder and used as a flour for making a wide range of foods including bread, fermented foods, pasta, cakes, biscuits and baby foods[
]. High in gluten, it is the most common flour used for making bread. The seed can also be sprouted and then added to salads or juiced to make a healthy drink[
The young stems are used in the treatment of biliousness and intoxication[
]. The ash is used to remove skin blemishes[
The fruit is antipyretic and sedative[
The light grain is antihydrotic[
]. It is used in the treatment of night sweats and spontaneous sweating[
]. The seed is said to contain sex hormones and has been used in China to promote female fertility[
The seed sprouts are antibilious, antivinous and constructive[
]. They are used in the treatment of malaise, sore throat, thirst, abdominal coldness and spasmic pain, constipation and cough[
The plant has anticancer properties[
The straw can be used as a substrate for mushroom production[
The straw has many uses, as a biomass for fuel etc, for thatching, as a mulch in the garden etc[
A fibre obtained from the stems is used for making paper[
]. The stems are harvested in late summer after the seed has been harvested, they are cut into usable pieces and soaked in clear water for 24 hours. They are then cooked for 2 hours in lye or soda ash and then beaten in a ball mill for 1½ hours in a ball mill. The fibres make a green-tan paper[
The straw is chopped and mixed with clay to produce a building material[
The starch from the seed is used for laundering, sizing textiles etc[
Seed - sow in situ. Germination occurs within a few days at temperatures of 4 - 37°c, the optimum being 12 - 25°c[