Abena jamaicensis (L.) Hitchc.
Stachytarpheta bogoriensis Zoll. & Moritzi
Stachytarpheta friedrichsthalii Hayek
Stachytarpheta pilosiuscula Kunth
Valerianoides jamaicensis (L.) Medik.
Verbena americana Mill.
Verbena jamaicensis L.
Verbena pilosiuscula (Kunth) Endl.
Zappania jamaicensis (L.) Lam.
Stachytarpheta jamaicensis is a well-branched. erect, perennial herb growing up to 1 metre tall. The stems become woody at the base[
The plant has a wide range of medicinal uses and is often gathered from the wild for local use. The plant is cultivated as a food crop and medicinal plant in India, SE Asia and the Caribbean area[
]. It is sometimes grown as an ornamental[
Northern S. America - Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, the Guyanas; through the Caribbean to Florida and Alabama; through C. America to Mexico.
Usually on sea beaches, sometimes along roadsides, at elevations from sea level to 900 metres[
|Other Uses Rating||
|Cultivation Status||Cultivated, Ornamental, Wild
The plant has become naturalized in Africa[
]. It is a common weed in Zanzibar, occurring in pure stands over large areas, it is often a weed of coconut plantations but is also troublesome in shambas[
The tips of the twigs are used as a pot herb and condiment[
The green leaves are chopped and cooked alone or can be mixed with other vegetables. Coconut milk or pounded groundnuts are added and the whole is then served with a staple food such as ugali or rice[
The leaves have been used as an adulterant for tea[
]. The dried leaves are used on their own as a tea, or are used to adulterate China tea[
The plant is reputed to have emetic, expectorant, sudorific and tonic[
]. It has been utilized locally in treating malaria, yellow fever, amenorrhea, syphilis, and gonorrhoea[
]. The whole plant is used in preparations for treating diarrhoea, dysentery, diabetes, low blood pressure and fractures[
A decoction of the whole plant is used as a bath to remedy grippe and headache; liver ailments[
]. A tincture of the plant in rum is employed as a lotion to relieve nervous pains[
The seedling is a mild purgative[
The root is depurative[
The leaves are astringent, cholagogue, hypotensive and purgative[
]. An infusion is used to treat high blood pressure[
] The juice of the leaves is used for treating colic and the pain of dysentery[
]. A stew made from the crushed leaves is used against gonorrhoea and to retard perspiration[
]. A decoction, combined with sodium sulphate, is drunk to remedy cutaneous eruptions[
The leaves are used externally as a resolutive cataplasm and for treating skins burns[
]. The juice of the leaves is placed in the ears to relieve earache[
The plant contains the iridoid ipolamiide, as well as tarphetalin, stachytarphine and dopamine, the latter being active on the central nervous system[
The leaves contain flavone pigments and choline[
The leaves also yield gamma-amino butyric acid, a hypertensive[
The plant is used for hedges[
The flowers are used to make earrings[
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