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Useful Tropical Plants

Sandoricum koetjape

(Burm.f.) Merr.

Meliaceae

+ Synonyms

Sandoricum indicum Cav.

Sandoricum maingayi Hiern

Sandoricum nervosum Blume

Sandoricum vidalii Merr.

Trichilia nervosa Vahl

Common Name: Santol

Sandoricum koetjape
Fruiting branches
Photograph by: Ahmad Fuad Morad
Creative Commons License
Sandoricum koetjape Sandoricum koetjape Sandoricum koetjape Sandoricum koetjape Sandoricum koetjape Sandoricum koetjape Sandoricum koetjape Sandoricum koetjape

General Information

Santol is a large, ornamental evergreen tree with a dense, narrowly oval crown; it usually grows around 25 metres tall but with some specimens up to 50 metres. The bole, which is sometimes straight but often crooked or fluted, is branchless for up to 18 metres; has a diameter up to 100 cm; and buttresses up to 3 metres high[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
,
459
Title
The Useful Plants of the Island of Guam
Publication
Contributions from the United States National Herbarium Vol 9
Author
Safford W.E.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/
Publisher
Smithsonian Institute; Washington.
Year
1905
ISBN
 
Description
A very comprehensive, if rather dated, guide to the plants of Guam. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
].
The tree yields an edible fruit that is popular in parts of the tropics. It also has a wide range of traditional medicinal uses and produces a useful timber. It is often cultivated in tropical areas, especially for its edible fruit and as an ornamental in parks, along roads etc[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
,
307
Title
Tropical and Subtropical Trees - A Worldwide Encyclopaedic Guide.
Publication
 
Author
Barwick. M.
Publisher
Thames & Hudson, London
Year
2004
ISBN
0-500-51181-0
Description
A superb book, very concise and well written, giving a wealth of information on 400 or more species including descriptions, habitat, cultivation details and plant uses. A wealth of colour photographs bring each plant vividly to life.
,
404
Title
Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.digitalspecies.blogspot.com
Publisher
www.digitalspecies.blogspot.com; Phnom Penh
Year
2008
ISBN
 
Description
A very detailed booklet, produced in PDF format on the internet, giving information on around 100 species of trees.
].

Known Hazards

None known

Botanical References


Range

E. Asia - Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, New Guinea.

Habitat

Scattered in primary or sometimes secondary rain forest. It also occurs in lowland dipterocarp forest[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. River banks and wet tropical lowland to elevations of 300 metres[
307
Title
Tropical and Subtropical Trees - A Worldwide Encyclopaedic Guide.
Publication
 
Author
Barwick. M.
Publisher
Thames & Hudson, London
Year
2004
ISBN
0-500-51181-0
Description
A superb book, very concise and well written, giving a wealth of information on 400 or more species including descriptions, habitat, cultivation details and plant uses. A wealth of colour photographs bring each plant vividly to life.
].

Properties

Edibility Rating *  *  *
Medicinal Rating *  *
Other Uses Rating *  *
HabitEvergreen Tree
Height25.00 m
Growth RateFast
Cultivation StatusCultivated, Ornamental, Wild

Cultivation Details

Santol is a plant of the hot, wet tropical lowlands[
335
Title
Perennial Edible Fruits of the Tropics : an Inventory
Publication
 
Author
Martin, F. W.; Campbell, C. W.; Rubertbe, R. M.
Publisher
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service
Year
1987
ISBN
 
Description
A booklet giving terse details of almost 300 species of edible fruits, plus regional lists of Botanical and Common names for over 2,500 less well-known edible fruits of the tropics.
], and cannot be grown above 1,000 metres in Java[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. It flourishes in dry as well as moist areas of the Philippine lowlands[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. Large trees can tolerate occasional light frosts[
335
Title
Perennial Edible Fruits of the Tropics : an Inventory
Publication
 
Author
Martin, F. W.; Campbell, C. W.; Rubertbe, R. M.
Publisher
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service
Year
1987
ISBN
 
Description
A booklet giving terse details of almost 300 species of edible fruits, plus regional lists of Botanical and Common names for over 2,500 less well-known edible fruits of the tropics.
]. The mean annual rainfall should lie in the range of 950 - 5,000mm, preferrably spread through the year but tolerant of a dry season of 2 - 5 months[
404
Title
Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.digitalspecies.blogspot.com
Publisher
www.digitalspecies.blogspot.com; Phnom Penh
Year
2008
ISBN
 
Description
A very detailed booklet, produced in PDF format on the internet, giving information on around 100 species of trees.
]. The temperatures during the hot season is best around 32 - 35°c, in the cold season from 18 - 22°c, but not below 16°c[
404
Title
Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.digitalspecies.blogspot.com
Publisher
www.digitalspecies.blogspot.com; Phnom Penh
Year
2008
ISBN
 
Description
A very detailed booklet, produced in PDF format on the internet, giving information on around 100 species of trees.
].
Prefers a position in full sun, but tolerant of some shade[
307
Title
Tropical and Subtropical Trees - A Worldwide Encyclopaedic Guide.
Publication
 
Author
Barwick. M.
Publisher
Thames & Hudson, London
Year
2004
ISBN
0-500-51181-0
Description
A superb book, very concise and well written, giving a wealth of information on 400 or more species including descriptions, habitat, cultivation details and plant uses. A wealth of colour photographs bring each plant vividly to life.
,
335
Title
Perennial Edible Fruits of the Tropics : an Inventory
Publication
 
Author
Martin, F. W.; Campbell, C. W.; Rubertbe, R. M.
Publisher
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service
Year
1987
ISBN
 
Description
A booklet giving terse details of almost 300 species of edible fruits, plus regional lists of Botanical and Common names for over 2,500 less well-known edible fruits of the tropics.
,
404
Title
Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.digitalspecies.blogspot.com
Publisher
www.digitalspecies.blogspot.com; Phnom Penh
Year
2008
ISBN
 
Description
A very detailed booklet, produced in PDF format on the internet, giving information on around 100 species of trees.
]. Prefers a fertile, well-drained, medium-acid soil, succeeding in clay loams, sandy clay loams with plenty of organic matter, limestone soils, volcanic soils and podsolic soils[
307
Title
Tropical and Subtropical Trees - A Worldwide Encyclopaedic Guide.
Publication
 
Author
Barwick. M.
Publisher
Thames & Hudson, London
Year
2004
ISBN
0-500-51181-0
Description
A superb book, very concise and well written, giving a wealth of information on 400 or more species including descriptions, habitat, cultivation details and plant uses. A wealth of colour photographs bring each plant vividly to life.
,
335
Title
Perennial Edible Fruits of the Tropics : an Inventory
Publication
 
Author
Martin, F. W.; Campbell, C. W.; Rubertbe, R. M.
Publisher
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service
Year
1987
ISBN
 
Description
A booklet giving terse details of almost 300 species of edible fruits, plus regional lists of Botanical and Common names for over 2,500 less well-known edible fruits of the tropics.
,
404
Title
Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.digitalspecies.blogspot.com
Publisher
www.digitalspecies.blogspot.com; Phnom Penh
Year
2008
ISBN
 
Description
A very detailed booklet, produced in PDF format on the internet, giving information on around 100 species of trees.
]. Plants are wind tolerant[
404
Title
Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.digitalspecies.blogspot.com
Publisher
www.digitalspecies.blogspot.com; Phnom Penh
Year
2008
ISBN
 
Description
A very detailed booklet, produced in PDF format on the internet, giving information on around 100 species of trees.
].
Trees commence flowering about 5 - 7 years after germinating[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. Clonally propagated trees may flower after 3 - 4 years[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
There are several named varieties, developed for their superior fruits[
301
Title
Cornucopia II
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications, California.
Year
1998
ISBN
0-9628087-2-5
Description
The second edition of an excellent guide to the edible uses of plants, though it does not give any details of cultivation etc.
].
Two 30 year old trees, in a botanic gardens, that had never fruited were put under stress by pounding large, heavy stones into the narrow forks of the main limbs - their first crops followed soon after[
307
Title
Tropical and Subtropical Trees - A Worldwide Encyclopaedic Guide.
Publication
 
Author
Barwick. M.
Publisher
Thames & Hudson, London
Year
2004
ISBN
0-500-51181-0
Description
A superb book, very concise and well written, giving a wealth of information on 400 or more species including descriptions, habitat, cultivation details and plant uses. A wealth of colour photographs bring each plant vividly to life.
].

Edible Uses

Fruit - raw or cooked. The whitish, translucent, subacid pulp of the fruit has a good flavour and is eaten fresh[
301
Title
Cornucopia II
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications, California.
Year
1998
ISBN
0-9628087-2-5
Description
The second edition of an excellent guide to the edible uses of plants, though it does not give any details of cultivation etc.
,
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. The fruit can be either thin or thick-skinned with a pleasant sweetish or a somewhat sour pulp, according to variety[
307
Title
Tropical and Subtropical Trees - A Worldwide Encyclopaedic Guide.
Publication
 
Author
Barwick. M.
Publisher
Thames & Hudson, London
Year
2004
ISBN
0-500-51181-0
Description
A superb book, very concise and well written, giving a wealth of information on 400 or more species including descriptions, habitat, cultivation details and plant uses. A wealth of colour photographs bring each plant vividly to life.
]. It can also be dried, used in making jams, jellies, marmalade etc[
301
Title
Cornucopia II
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications, California.
Year
1998
ISBN
0-9628087-2-5
Description
The second edition of an excellent guide to the edible uses of plants, though it does not give any details of cultivation etc.
]. The fruit is about the size of a clenched fist and contains one, sometimes two, large seeds[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
], although there are also seedless varieties[
46
Title
Dictionary of Economic Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Uphof. J. C. Th.
Publisher
Weinheim
Year
1959
ISBN
-
Description
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
].

Medicinal

The pounded leaves are sudorific when applied to the skin and are used to make a decoction against diarrhoea and fever[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].

The powdered bark is an effective treatment for ringworms, and contains triterpenes with anti-cancer activity[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
Both the seeds and the stems are being studied for the anti-carcinogenic substances that they contain[
307
Title
Tropical and Subtropical Trees - A Worldwide Encyclopaedic Guide.
Publication
 
Author
Barwick. M.
Publisher
Thames & Hudson, London
Year
2004
ISBN
0-500-51181-0
Description
A superb book, very concise and well written, giving a wealth of information on 400 or more species including descriptions, habitat, cultivation details and plant uses. A wealth of colour photographs bring each plant vividly to life.
].

The aromatic roots are employed as an anti-diarrhoeic, anti-spasmodic, carminative, antiseptic, astringent, stomachic and are prescribed as a general tonic after childbirth[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. The root can be bruised then soaked in vinegar and water to be used as an effective remedy for diarrhoea and dysentery[
459
Title
The Useful Plants of the Island of Guam
Publication
Contributions from the United States National Herbarium Vol 9
Author
Safford W.E.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/
Publisher
Smithsonian Institute; Washington.
Year
1905
ISBN
 
Description
A very comprehensive, if rather dated, guide to the plants of Guam. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
].

Agroforestry Uses:

The tree is important in its native area in soil conservation[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. The tree is known to form vesicular arbiscular mycorrhizae, which is useful in soil improvement[
404
Title
Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.digitalspecies.blogspot.com
Publisher
www.digitalspecies.blogspot.com; Phnom Penh
Year
2008
ISBN
 
Description
A very detailed booklet, produced in PDF format on the internet, giving information on around 100 species of trees.
].

Other Uses

The fragrant wood is used in perfumery[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
,
404
Title
Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.digitalspecies.blogspot.com
Publisher
www.digitalspecies.blogspot.com; Phnom Penh
Year
2008
ISBN
 
Description
A very detailed booklet, produced in PDF format on the internet, giving information on around 100 species of trees.
].

The bark is used for tanning fishing nets[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].

The heartwood is pale red, yellowish-red or yellow-brown with a pink tinge; it can be indistinct or distinguishable from the pale white or pinkish sapwood. The grain is straight or slightly wavy; texture moderately fine to slightly coarse and even. The wood is light to moderate weight; moderately soft to moderately hard; fairly weak to moderately strong. The wood is durable under cover, but non-durable when exposed to the weather or in contact with the ground; it is susceptible to marine borer attack and moderately resistant to insect attack. It is easy to saw; can be planed and finished with good results, though occasionally a little furry; it takes a high polish. The wood is used for making furniture, cabinet work, joinery, interior construction, shop fitting, panelling, planking and decking of boats, scantlings, carving, butlers chopping blocks, packing cases, household and agricultural implements, for production of veneer,
plywood, blockboard, pulp and paper. It is used in the construction of traditional houses and boats[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
,
404
Title
Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.digitalspecies.blogspot.com
Publisher
www.digitalspecies.blogspot.com; Phnom Penh
Year
2008
ISBN
 
Description
A very detailed booklet, produced in PDF format on the internet, giving information on around 100 species of trees.
,
459
Title
The Useful Plants of the Island of Guam
Publication
Contributions from the United States National Herbarium Vol 9
Author
Safford W.E.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/
Publisher
Smithsonian Institute; Washington.
Year
1905
ISBN
 
Description
A very comprehensive, if rather dated, guide to the plants of Guam. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
]. Poles from the tree are used for fencing[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
A good fuel, the wood gives forth an aromatic aroma as it burns[
459
Title
The Useful Plants of the Island of Guam
Publication
Contributions from the United States National Herbarium Vol 9
Author
Safford W.E.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/
Publisher
Smithsonian Institute; Washington.
Year
1905
ISBN
 
Description
A very comprehensive, if rather dated, guide to the plants of Guam. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
]. It is used to make a good quality charcoal[
404
Title
Digital Compendium of Forestry Species of Cambodia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.digitalspecies.blogspot.com
Publisher
www.digitalspecies.blogspot.com; Phnom Penh
Year
2008
ISBN
 
Description
A very detailed booklet, produced in PDF format on the internet, giving information on around 100 species of trees.
].

Propagation

Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe since they have a short viability[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. Freshly sown, they have a germination rate of 90-95% in 16-31 days[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. Seeds grow away quickly[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
Budding.
Air layering.

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