A very variable species, it has been divided into as many as ten different species by some authorities[
Boehmeria albida Hook. & Arn.
Pipturus brighamii Skottsb.
Pipturus eriocarpus Skottsb.
Pipturus gaudichaudianus Wedd.
Pipturus hawaiiensis H.Lév.
Pipturus helleri Skottsb.
Pipturus oahuensis Skottsb.
Pipturus pachyphyllus Skottsb.
Pipturus pterocarpus Skottsb.
Pipturus rockii Skottsb.
Pipturus skottsbergii Krojina
Pipturus taitensis Wedd.
Common Name: Mamaki
Mamaki is an evergreen shrub or small tree growing 3 - 10 metres tall[
The fibres obtained from the stems were traditionally used to make a fine cloth, cordage etc. The plant also yields food and medicines. It is one of the very few Hawaiian plants that are available commercially as a tea[
Western Pacific - Hawaii.
Mesic to wet forest, diverse mesic forest, mesic valleys at elevations from sea level to 1,870 metres[
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Succeeds in full sun and in dappled shade[
]. Requires a moist to wet, but well-drained soil[
Plants flower and produce seed all year round[
Young plants can commence bearing fruit when only two years old from seed[
The flowers are either male or female. Both types are usually found on each plant, but occasional plants produce either all male or all female flowers[
White fruits resembling small raspberries are produced along the branches. These are edible but bland to subtly sweet[
The leaves are used to make a mild but invigorating and healthy tea[
The leaves are made into a tea and used as a cleansing agent and tonic for a generally 'run-down' person[
The small white fruits are used as a mild laxative for children[
Applied externally, the fruit has been used in healing sores and wounds[
The seeds are given to infants for general debility of the body[
The fruits and seeds are eaten during the later months of pregnancy in order to ease the birth[
A tea made from the dried or fresh leaves is mild but invigorating. It is used to treat listlessness, and to help with many internal disorders, such as for the stomach, colon, bladder, liver, and bowels[
The inner bark fibres are used in making kapa cloth[
]. The sap was also sometimes used in a wetting solution during the kapa-making process[
]. Kapa was made by removing a section of the bark and then beating it thinner and thinner with a wooden mallet on a flat surface until eventually a fine cloth used for clothing was produced[
The long strong fibres were used for rope and cordage[
The wood has been used to make clubs and kapa beaters[
Seed - sow in a fine, moist, well-compacted potting medium[
]. The tiny seeds need to be removed from the fruit pulp before planting. Ripen the fruit in a plastic bag to soften the pulp then the seeds can be removed from the pulp more easily. This can be done by rubbing the fruits in a strainer under running water, or by manually crushing the fruits in a bowl of water to separate the seeds from the pulp. The viable seeds will sink and the fruit pulp and other debris can be poured off. Rinse the seeds a few times and pour a mixture of water and seeds on the surface of moist, fine textured, well-compacted medium[
]. Keep the containers in a partially shady location and keep the medium moist. The seeds should begin to germinate in 2 - 3 weeks[
Cuttings, 10 - 15cm long[
]. Easy according to some reports, difficult according to others[
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