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Useful Tropical Plants

Endospermum medullosum

L.S.Sm.

Euphorbiaceae

+ Synonyms

Common Name:

Endospermum medullosum

General Information

Endospermum medullosum is a tree with a shallow, flat-topped and umbrella-like crown; it usually grows 20 - 40 metres tall, though specimens up to 54 metres have been recorded. The bole is usually straight and cylindrical, though twisted and kinked or uneven trees occur; it is generally clear of branches for more than half its height, 50 - 100cm in diameter, with buttresses at the base[
312
Title
Traditional Trees of Pacific Islands
Publication
 
Author
Elevitch. Craig. R. (Editor)
Publisher
Permanent Agriculture Resources, Hawaii
Year
2006
ISBN
0970254458
Description
Beautifully produced book with superb photos and detailed information on over 50 species of useful plants of the Pacific Islands.
].
This species is the major commercial timber in Vanuatu, and is also extensively harvested in New Guinea. It is often cultivated as a timber crop in Vanuatu[
312
Title
Traditional Trees of Pacific Islands
Publication
 
Author
Elevitch. Craig. R. (Editor)
Publisher
Permanent Agriculture Resources, Hawaii
Year
2006
ISBN
0970254458
Description
Beautifully produced book with superb photos and detailed information on over 50 species of useful plants of the Pacific Islands.
]. The tree is also harvested from the wild for local use as a food and medicine. It can be grown to provide shade and shelter for other crops, to stabilize the soil and also as a pioneer to restore native woodland and establish woodland gardens.

Known Hazards

None known

Botanical References

388
Title
Guide to the Trees of Papua New Guinea
Publication
 
Author
Conn. B.J. & Damas. K.Q.
Website
http://www.pngplants.org/PNGtrees/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An Internet site giving good descriptions of the trees of Papua New Guinea.

Range

Southeast Asia - Indonesia to New Guinea, Bismarck Islands, Solomon Islands, Santa Cruz Islands, Vanuatu.

Habitat

An emergent or canopy tree in rainforests[
388
Title
Guide to the Trees of Papua New Guinea
Publication
 
Author
Conn. B.J. & Damas. K.Q.
Website
http://www.pngplants.org/PNGtrees/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An Internet site giving good descriptions of the trees of Papua New Guinea.
].

Properties

Weed PotentialYes
Edibility Rating *  *
Medicinal Rating *  *
Other Uses Rating *  *  *
HabitTree
Height33.00 m
Growth RateFast
Self-fertileNo
Cultivation StatusCultivated, Wild

Cultivation Details

A plant of the lowland, humid tropics, where it can be found at elevations up to 350 metres. It grows best in areas where the mean annual temperature is between 22 - 28°c and the mean annual rainfall is 1,500 - 5,600mm, uniformly distributed[
312
Title
Traditional Trees of Pacific Islands
Publication
 
Author
Elevitch. Craig. R. (Editor)
Publisher
Permanent Agriculture Resources, Hawaii
Year
2006
ISBN
0970254458
Description
Beautifully produced book with superb photos and detailed information on over 50 species of useful plants of the Pacific Islands.
].
Requires a sunny position[
312
Title
Traditional Trees of Pacific Islands
Publication
 
Author
Elevitch. Craig. R. (Editor)
Publisher
Permanent Agriculture Resources, Hawaii
Year
2006
ISBN
0970254458
Description
Beautifully produced book with superb photos and detailed information on over 50 species of useful plants of the Pacific Islands.
]. Succeeds in a wide range of soils, especially alluvial soils[
312
Title
Traditional Trees of Pacific Islands
Publication
 
Author
Elevitch. Craig. R. (Editor)
Publisher
Permanent Agriculture Resources, Hawaii
Year
2006
ISBN
0970254458
Description
Beautifully produced book with superb photos and detailed information on over 50 species of useful plants of the Pacific Islands.
]. Tolerant of seasonal inundation with a few weeks of up to 1 metre depth of water[
312
Title
Traditional Trees of Pacific Islands
Publication
 
Author
Elevitch. Craig. R. (Editor)
Publisher
Permanent Agriculture Resources, Hawaii
Year
2006
ISBN
0970254458
Description
Beautifully produced book with superb photos and detailed information on over 50 species of useful plants of the Pacific Islands.
]. Trees of all ages have good cyclone resistance, mainly losing leaves and lateral branches during strong winds[
312
Title
Traditional Trees of Pacific Islands
Publication
 
Author
Elevitch. Craig. R. (Editor)
Publisher
Permanent Agriculture Resources, Hawaii
Year
2006
ISBN
0970254458
Description
Beautifully produced book with superb photos and detailed information on over 50 species of useful plants of the Pacific Islands.
]. Succeds in soils with a pH in the range 4 - 7.4[
312
Title
Traditional Trees of Pacific Islands
Publication
 
Author
Elevitch. Craig. R. (Editor)
Publisher
Permanent Agriculture Resources, Hawaii
Year
2006
ISBN
0970254458
Description
Beautifully produced book with superb photos and detailed information on over 50 species of useful plants of the Pacific Islands.
].
The tree is potentially invasive if cultivated outside its native range[
312
Title
Traditional Trees of Pacific Islands
Publication
 
Author
Elevitch. Craig. R. (Editor)
Publisher
Permanent Agriculture Resources, Hawaii
Year
2006
ISBN
0970254458
Description
Beautifully produced book with superb photos and detailed information on over 50 species of useful plants of the Pacific Islands.
].
A very fast growing plant, increasing in height by up to 2.5 - 3 metres a year for the first 10 years, after which growth slows[
312
Title
Traditional Trees of Pacific Islands
Publication
 
Author
Elevitch. Craig. R. (Editor)
Publisher
Permanent Agriculture Resources, Hawaii
Year
2006
ISBN
0970254458
Description
Beautifully produced book with superb photos and detailed information on over 50 species of useful plants of the Pacific Islands.
].
Flowering and fruiting generally first occur when the tree is about 3 - 4 years old, though large quantities of seed are not produced until the age of 4 - 6 years[
312
Title
Traditional Trees of Pacific Islands
Publication
 
Author
Elevitch. Craig. R. (Editor)
Publisher
Permanent Agriculture Resources, Hawaii
Year
2006
ISBN
0970254458
Description
Beautifully produced book with superb photos and detailed information on over 50 species of useful plants of the Pacific Islands.
].
The tree coppices well up to the age of 3 - 4 years, results thereafter are somewhat mixed[
312
Title
Traditional Trees of Pacific Islands
Publication
 
Author
Elevitch. Craig. R. (Editor)
Publisher
Permanent Agriculture Resources, Hawaii
Year
2006
ISBN
0970254458
Description
Beautifully produced book with superb photos and detailed information on over 50 species of useful plants of the Pacific Islands.
]. It pollards well, even in older specimens[
312
Title
Traditional Trees of Pacific Islands
Publication
 
Author
Elevitch. Craig. R. (Editor)
Publisher
Permanent Agriculture Resources, Hawaii
Year
2006
ISBN
0970254458
Description
Beautifully produced book with superb photos and detailed information on over 50 species of useful plants of the Pacific Islands.
].
On fertile sites, wood yields of 20 - 30 cubic metres per hectare per year can be obtained[
312
Title
Traditional Trees of Pacific Islands
Publication
 
Author
Elevitch. Craig. R. (Editor)
Publisher
Permanent Agriculture Resources, Hawaii
Year
2006
ISBN
0970254458
Description
Beautifully produced book with superb photos and detailed information on over 50 species of useful plants of the Pacific Islands.
].
A dioecious species, both male and female forms need to be grown if fruit and seed are required[
312
Title
Traditional Trees of Pacific Islands
Publication
 
Author
Elevitch. Craig. R. (Editor)
Publisher
Permanent Agriculture Resources, Hawaii
Year
2006
ISBN
0970254458
Description
Beautifully produced book with superb photos and detailed information on over 50 species of useful plants of the Pacific Islands.
].

Edible Uses

Young leaves - cooked and eaten as a vegetable[
312
Title
Traditional Trees of Pacific Islands
Publication
 
Author
Elevitch. Craig. R. (Editor)
Publisher
Permanent Agriculture Resources, Hawaii
Year
2006
ISBN
0970254458
Description
Beautifully produced book with superb photos and detailed information on over 50 species of useful plants of the Pacific Islands.
].

Medicinal

The bark is widely used in Vanuatu for custom medicine, including the treatment of rheumatism[
312
Title
Traditional Trees of Pacific Islands
Publication
 
Author
Elevitch. Craig. R. (Editor)
Publisher
Permanent Agriculture Resources, Hawaii
Year
2006
ISBN
0970254458
Description
Beautifully produced book with superb photos and detailed information on over 50 species of useful plants of the Pacific Islands.
].

The bark or sap is used for the treatment of stomachache[
312
Title
Traditional Trees of Pacific Islands
Publication
 
Author
Elevitch. Craig. R. (Editor)
Publisher
Permanent Agriculture Resources, Hawaii
Year
2006
ISBN
0970254458
Description
Beautifully produced book with superb photos and detailed information on over 50 species of useful plants of the Pacific Islands.
].

Agroforestry Uses:

The plant has some pioneer characteristics, usually invading secondary forest in the early stages of development. Natural regeneration after logging or extensive storm damage is often prolific, especially where this is accompanied by
soil disturbance. Young trees may be shaded out by other faster-growing pioneers or smothered by climbers. The tree plays an important environmental role in the revegetation of various types of disturbed sites[
312
Title
Traditional Trees of Pacific Islands
Publication
 
Author
Elevitch. Craig. R. (Editor)
Publisher
Permanent Agriculture Resources, Hawaii
Year
2006
ISBN
0970254458
Description
Beautifully produced book with superb photos and detailed information on over 50 species of useful plants of the Pacific Islands.
].
The tree has extensive lateral surace roots and is a very good stabilizer. Its fallen leaves break down quite quickly and raise organic matter levels in the soil, thus improving soil fertility[
312
Title
Traditional Trees of Pacific Islands
Publication
 
Author
Elevitch. Craig. R. (Editor)
Publisher
Permanent Agriculture Resources, Hawaii
Year
2006
ISBN
0970254458
Description
Beautifully produced book with superb photos and detailed information on over 50 species of useful plants of the Pacific Islands.
].
The tree provides moderately heavy shade and so can be grown above shade-bearing crops such as cardamon, cocoa and taro[
312
Title
Traditional Trees of Pacific Islands
Publication
 
Author
Elevitch. Craig. R. (Editor)
Publisher
Permanent Agriculture Resources, Hawaii
Year
2006
ISBN
0970254458
Description
Beautifully produced book with superb photos and detailed information on over 50 species of useful plants of the Pacific Islands.
].
With its ability to tolerate very strong winds, the plant can be grown as part of a shelterbelt[
312
Title
Traditional Trees of Pacific Islands
Publication
 
Author
Elevitch. Craig. R. (Editor)
Publisher
Permanent Agriculture Resources, Hawaii
Year
2006
ISBN
0970254458
Description
Beautifully produced book with superb photos and detailed information on over 50 species of useful plants of the Pacific Islands.
].

Other Uses

The heartwood is creamy white to bright yellow; it is not demarcated from the sapwood. The texture is coarse; the grain straight or interlocked, sometimes wavy; the surface lustrous. The wood is very soft; very light in weight; not durable, being susceptible to fungi, dry wood borers and termites. It seasons quickly, with only a slight risk of checking or distortion; once dry it is stable in service. The wood works well with ordinary tools, though the presence of tension wood can cause overheating and blunting of sawblades; there is a risk of woolly surfaces so tools need to be kept sharp; nailing and screwing are poor; gluing is correct. It is an important source of the timber sesendok and is one of the favourite timbers for clogs, pattern making, trays, furniture parts, plywood chests, low grade coffins, disposable chop-sticks and other small articles; and is also used for matchboxes, match splints, drawing boards, black boards and toys[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
,
327
Title
Euphorbiaceae of Malesia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.nationaalherbarium.nl/euphorbs/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An online resource that is still being developed, it gives detailed botanical descriptions of plants in the family Euphorbiaceae found growing in Malesia (the region from Peninsual Malaysia through Indonesia, the Philippines).
,
848
Title
Tropix 7
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://tropix.cirad.fr/en
Publisher
CIRAD
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line guide to the timbers of 245 species of trees.
]. Traditionally, the tree was sometimes used to make canoes[
312
Title
Traditional Trees of Pacific Islands
Publication
 
Author
Elevitch. Craig. R. (Editor)
Publisher
Permanent Agriculture Resources, Hawaii
Year
2006
ISBN
0970254458
Description
Beautifully produced book with superb photos and detailed information on over 50 species of useful plants of the Pacific Islands.
].
The wood is used for fuel[
312
Title
Traditional Trees of Pacific Islands
Publication
 
Author
Elevitch. Craig. R. (Editor)
Publisher
Permanent Agriculture Resources, Hawaii
Year
2006
ISBN
0970254458
Description
Beautifully produced book with superb photos and detailed information on over 50 species of useful plants of the Pacific Islands.
].

Propagation

Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe. Germination rates can be variable due to predation of the seeds by wasps, and is often very low[
312
Title
Traditional Trees of Pacific Islands
Publication
 
Author
Elevitch. Craig. R. (Editor)
Publisher
Permanent Agriculture Resources, Hawaii
Year
2006
ISBN
0970254458
Description
Beautifully produced book with superb photos and detailed information on over 50 species of useful plants of the Pacific Islands.
]. The seed can be sown with the fresh fruit pulp still attached. Sow in a nursery bed or in containers, either in full sun or with up to 25% shade. Germination takes 2 - 5 weeks. Young plants are very fast-growing, and are ready for planting out when 25cm tall, which can be in as little as 14 - 16 weeks after germination[
312
Title
Traditional Trees of Pacific Islands
Publication
 
Author
Elevitch. Craig. R. (Editor)
Publisher
Permanent Agriculture Resources, Hawaii
Year
2006
ISBN
0970254458
Description
Beautifully produced book with superb photos and detailed information on over 50 species of useful plants of the Pacific Islands.
].
Cuttings of long terminal shoots 20 - 25cm long, placed in containers until well-rooted[
312
Title
Traditional Trees of Pacific Islands
Publication
 
Author
Elevitch. Craig. R. (Editor)
Publisher
Permanent Agriculture Resources, Hawaii
Year
2006
ISBN
0970254458
Description
Beautifully produced book with superb photos and detailed information on over 50 species of useful plants of the Pacific Islands.
].
Cite as: Tropical Plants Database, Ken Fern. tropical.theferns.info. 2019-09-16. <tropical.theferns.info/viewtropical.php?id=Endospermum+medullosum>

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