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Useful Tropical Plants

Dracontomelon dao

(Blanco) Merr. & Rolfe

Anacardiaceae

+ Synonyms

Comeurya cumingiana Baill.

Dracontomelon brachyphyllum Ridl.

Dracontomelon celebicum Koord.

Dracontomelon cumingianum (Baill.) Baill.

Dracontomelon edule (Blanco) Skeels

Dracontomelon lamiyo (Blanco) Merr.

Dracontomelon laxum K.Schum.

Dracontomelon mangiferum (Blume) Blume

Dracontomelon puberulum Miq.

Dracontomelon sylvestre Blume

Paliurus dao Blanco

Paliurus edulis Blanco

Paliurus lamujo Blanco

Poupartia mangifera Blume

Common Name: Pacific Walnut

Dracontomelon dao
Plant growing at the Rama IX Royal Park, Bangkok, Thailand
Photograph by: Tony Rodd
Creative Commons License
Dracontomelon dao Dracontomelon dao Dracontomelon dao

General Information

Pacific walnut is an evergreen (or briefly deciduous when growing in areas with a dry season), large tree that can grow up to 55 metres tall but is usually much smaller[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. The straight, cylindrical bole of larger specimens usually has large buttresses up to 5 metres high, it can be branchless for up to 20 metres and 100 - 120cm in diameter[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
,
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
,
598
Title
Trees of Laos and Vietnam - A Field Guide to 100 species.
Publication
 
Author
Hoang Van Sam; Khamseng Nanthavong; Kessler P.J.A.
Publisher
Blumea
Year
2004
ISBN
 
Description
A detailed guide, with excellent line-drawings, to 100 of the more important trees of Laos and Vietnam. A very good work, giving lots of information about each plant. Originally published in the magazine Blumea, it available as a PDF on the Internet.
].
The tree is harvested from the wild for local use as a food, medicine and source of wood. The fruit is sometimes sold in local markets and is a popular food in some areas[
46
Title
Dictionary of Economic Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Uphof. J. C. Th.
Publisher
Weinheim
Year
1959
ISBN
-
Description
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
,
658
Title
Food Plants of Papua New Guinea
Publication
 
Author
French. B.R.
Publisher
Author.
Year
2006
ISBN
 
Description
Published on-line in PDF format, this book contains information on several hundred New Guinea food plants.
]. The tree is planted as a fruit tree in villages, and also as an ornamental in roadside plantings[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
,
451
Title
Flora Malesiana Series 1
Publication
 
Author
Various
Website
http://www.archive.org
Publisher
Nationaal Herbarium Nederiand, Universiteit Leiden branch
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A massive treatment of the plants of the Malaysian Archipelago. Much of it has been made available to download from the Internet
].

Known Hazards

The sap of the tree may be irritating and /or poisonous[
658
Title
Food Plants of Papua New Guinea
Publication
 
Author
French. B.R.
Publisher
Author.
Year
2006
ISBN
 
Description
Published on-line in PDF format, this book contains information on several hundred New Guinea food plants.
].

Botanical References

451
Title
Flora Malesiana Series 1
Publication
 
Author
Various
Website
http://www.archive.org
Publisher
Nationaal Herbarium Nederiand, Universiteit Leiden branch
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A massive treatment of the plants of the Malaysian Archipelago. Much of it has been made available to download from the Internet

Range

E. Asia - southern China, India, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Philippines, to Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands,

Habitat

Scattered on well drained to poorly drained clayey to stony soils, mainly alluvial flats and swampy areas in primary or secondary, evergreen or semi-deciduous (monsoon) forest from sea level to elevations of 500, occasionally 1,000 metres[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].

Properties

Edibility Rating *  *  *
Medicinal Rating *  *
Other Uses Rating *  *
HabitSemi-deciduous Tree
Height25.00 m
Cultivation StatusOrnamental, Wild

Cultivation Details

A plant of the lowland tropics growing in areas with a high rainfall that is more or less evenly distributed throughout the year or, less frequently, in areas with a short dry season where the tree is briefly deciduous[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. It experiences a mean annual rainfall in the range 1,800 - 2,900 mm[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
Trees tolerate some shade[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. Prefers a sunny position[
598
Title
Trees of Laos and Vietnam - A Field Guide to 100 species.
Publication
 
Author
Hoang Van Sam; Khamseng Nanthavong; Kessler P.J.A.
Publisher
Blumea
Year
2004
ISBN
 
Description
A detailed guide, with excellent line-drawings, to 100 of the more important trees of Laos and Vietnam. A very good work, giving lots of information about each plant. Originally published in the magazine Blumea, it available as a PDF on the Internet.
]. Found in the wild growing on clayey to stony soils, mainly alluvial flats, and in swampy areas[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
Inflorescences are produced at the base of new shoots[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. The tree is reported to bear flowers almost throughout the year, although a more concentrated flowering occurs when the tree is almost leafless and before new bronze-coloured leaves appear[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
Young trees can reach a height of 3 - 4 metres after 2 years and 6.5 metres after 5.5 years[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
In Java, where trial plantations have been established at a spacing of 1 x 3 metres, the canopy closes after 8 years[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
Natural pruning is usually good, so artificial pruning is seldom necessary[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].

Edible Uses

Fruit - raw or cooked[
2
Title
Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World.
Publication
 
Author
Hedrick. U. P.
Publisher
Dover Publications
Year
1972
ISBN
0-486-20459-6
Description
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.
]. Popular in some areas, though in others it is considered inferior and is mostly eaten by children[
46
Title
Dictionary of Economic Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Uphof. J. C. Th.
Publisher
Weinheim
Year
1959
ISBN
-
Description
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
,
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
,
658
Title
Food Plants of Papua New Guinea
Publication
 
Author
French. B.R.
Publisher
Author.
Year
2006
ISBN
 
Description
Published on-line in PDF format, this book contains information on several hundred New Guinea food plants.
]. The small, sourish-sweet fruit is cooked with soy sauce and eaten with rice, or used for flavouring curries[
301
Title
Cornucopia II
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications, California.
Year
1998
ISBN
0-9628087-2-5
Description
The second edition of an excellent guide to the edible uses of plants, though it does not give any details of cultivation etc.
]. The globose drupe is green, turning yellowish when fully ripe, and about 2 - 4cm in diameter[
598
Title
Trees of Laos and Vietnam - A Field Guide to 100 species.
Publication
 
Author
Hoang Van Sam; Khamseng Nanthavong; Kessler P.J.A.
Publisher
Blumea
Year
2004
ISBN
 
Description
A detailed guide, with excellent line-drawings, to 100 of the more important trees of Laos and Vietnam. A very good work, giving lots of information about each plant. Originally published in the magazine Blumea, it available as a PDF on the Internet.
].

The seed is edible[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].

Flowers and leaves are cooked and eaten as a vegetable or used as a food flavouring[
301
Title
Cornucopia II
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications, California.
Year
1998
ISBN
0-9628087-2-5
Description
The second edition of an excellent guide to the edible uses of plants, though it does not give any details of cultivation etc.
,
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
,
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].

Medicinal

The bark is used in the treatment of dysentery[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. The bark is used in traditional medicine to provoke an abortion[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].

The leaves and flowers are employed in traditional medicine[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].

The fruit is depurative[
407
Title
BoDD (Botanical Dermatology Database)
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://bodd.cf.ac.uk/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Brief notes on a very wide range of plants that have reports of causing harm to the skin.
]. It is used in the treatment of dermatitis[
407
Title
BoDD (Botanical Dermatology Database)
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://bodd.cf.ac.uk/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Brief notes on a very wide range of plants that have reports of causing harm to the skin.
]. The mature fruits are used in dentistry[
598
Title
Trees of Laos and Vietnam - A Field Guide to 100 species.
Publication
 
Author
Hoang Van Sam; Khamseng Nanthavong; Kessler P.J.A.
Publisher
Blumea
Year
2004
ISBN
 
Description
A detailed guide, with excellent line-drawings, to 100 of the more important trees of Laos and Vietnam. A very good work, giving lots of information about each plant. Originally published in the magazine Blumea, it available as a PDF on the Internet.
]. No more details given[
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
].

Other Uses

The heartwood is greyish, greenish-yellow to walnut brown, often with irregular dark brown to nearly black bands or fine streaks; it is more or less clearly differentiated from the up to 10cm wide band of pale yellow with pinkish or greyish tinge s sapwood. The grain is straight or interlocked, texture moderately coarse to coarse and even, lustrous, wavy grain sometimes producing a coarse fiddle-back figure. The wood is soft, moderately heavy, not very durable. It is used for veneers, furniture, plywood, boxes, matches interior trim and light frames[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
,
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
The tree is used for firewood[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].

Propagation

Seed -
Propagation is usually by seed. Trees can also be established by direct sowing and wildings as it regenerates easily
Seed should be extracted immediately after the fleshy fruits have been collected. Pulp and seed can be separated by maceration. There are 520-620 seeds/kg. Seeds are recalcitrant and there is a 33 % germination when sown fresh and no germination at all after 6 months under ambient conditions in Java. In Malaysia, 85-95 % of fresh seeds germinate after 28-67 days

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