Cinnamomum ammannii Lukman.
Cinnamomum cassia Siebold
Cinnamomum chinense Blume
Cinnamomum dulce (Roxb.) Nees
Cinnamomum dulce (Roxb.) Sweet
Cinnamomum hainanense Nakai
Cinnamomum kiamis Nees
Cinnamomum macrostemon Hayata
Cinnamomum mindanaense Elmer.
Cinnamomum mutabile Blume ex Miq.
Cinnamomum thunbergii Lukman.
Laurus burmanni Nees & T.Nees
Laurus dulcis Roxb.
Persea dulcis (Roxb.) Spreng.
Common Name: Batavia Cinnamon
Indonesian cinnamon spice bark neatly rolled into sticks or quills in a bowl
Photograph by: Jonathunder
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0
Batavia cinnamon is an evergreen shrub or small tree growing up to 15 metres tall. The bole can be up to 30cm in diameter[
The tree is harvested from the wild for a range of uses, including as a spice, medicine and source of essential oils and wood. The bark is traded, both locally and internationally, whilst the plant is also cultivated for this bark, especially in Java and Sumatra[
E. Asia - southern China, India, Malaysia to Indonesia and the Philippines.
Sparse or dense forests and thickets, roadsides along streams at elevations of 100 - 1400 metres in southern China[
|Other Uses Rating||
|Cultivation Status||Cultivated, Wild
A plant of the moist tropics, where it is found at elevations up to 2,000 metres. It grows best in areas where annual daytime temperatures are within the range 20 - 28°c, but can tolerate 11 - 34°c[
]. It prefers a mean annual rainfall in the range 2,000 - 2,500mm, but tolerates 1,800 - 3,500mm[
]. It grows best at an elevation between 500 - 1,500 metres, with an evenly distributed annual rainfall of 2,000 - 2,500mm[
Prefers a fertile, sandy, moisture-retentive but freely draining soil in full sun or partial shade[
]. Prefers a pH in the range 5.5 - 6, tolerating 5 - 7[
Trees are ready for their first harvest when about 5 years old and can then yield economic harvests for about 20 years[
Average-sized trees yield about 3 kg of stem bark and 1.5 kg of branch bark[
]. In a crop cycle of 10 years, the total yield is about 2 t/ha of bark[
The dried bark of the trunk is much used as a spice, especially in the Netherlands and the USA[
]. It is used as a substitute for cassia bark(Cinnamomum cassia)[
]. A good cinnamon substitute[
The bark is antibacterial, antispasmodic, carminative, stomachic, sedative, sialagogue, vasodilatory[
].It is used in the treatment of conditions such as traumatic injuries, abdominal pain, anaemia, lumbago and arthralgia[
The bark contains essential oils (especially phellandrene, eugenol, cinnamic aldehyde, methyleugenol), mucilage and tannins[
Powdered cassia bark is listed in the British Herbal Pharmacopoeia as a specific remedy for flatulent dyspepsia or colic with nausea[
]. The barks of various species in this genus are well-known folk medicines for a long list of ailments such as diarrhoea, gripe, malaria, coughs and chest complaints[
In European phytomedicine, cassia oil (0.05-0.2 g daily intake) is used in teas and other galenicals for its antibacterial, carminative, and fungistatic properties, and also for loss of appetite and dyspeptic disturbances[
The bark contains 1 - 4% of an essential oil[
]. The oil is a colourless to brownish-yellow liquid, mainly consisting of cinnamaldehyde, and lacking eugenol, it is used in soaps and perfumes[
]. Also used as an incense[
The leafy branchlets contain essential oils[
]. Three types of the oil are found in Yunnan: linalol type (linalol ca.
57%), citral type (citral ca. 77%), and cineole type (cineole ca. 47%)[
The wood is heavy, soft, finely grained, and used for house construction[
Seed - the seed has a short viability and is best sown as soon as it is ripe in a shaded nursery bed[
]. Remove the fruit pulp since this can inhibit germination[
]. Germination can take 1 - 6 months at 20°c[
]. Fresh seed germinates in 5-15 days[
]. Plant them out into their permanent positions when 20cm or more tall.
Cuttings of semi-ripe side shoots, 7cm with a heel, June/July in a frame with bottom heat[