Abies columbaria (Dum.Cours.) Dum.Cours.
Araucaria excelsa glauca Carrière
Araucaria excelsa speciosissima Carrière
Eutacta excelsa aurea-variegata Carrière
Eutacta excelsa glauca (Carrière) Carrière
Eutacta excelsa monstrosa Carrière
Eutacta excelsa variegata-alba Carrière
Eutassa heterophylla Salisb.
Pinus columbaria Dum.Cours.
Common Name: Norfolk Island Pine
Skyline of Norfolk Island pines in Gerringong, NSW Australia
Photograph by: John Tann
Norfolk Island pine is an evergreen tree with a narrow, elongate, pyramidal crown comprised of regular tiers of short, horizontal, spreading branches; it can grow up to 65 metres tall in its native habitat, but is likely to be much smaller grown elsewhere. The straight, cylindrical bole is usually 40 - 60cm in diameter, with some old trees said to be up to 300cm; there are swellings or small buttresses at the base[
A beautiful tree of symmetrical, pyramidal shape, it is widely planted as an ornamental and avenue tree throughout the subtropics and tropics. Small saplings are used as environmentally friendly Christmas trees, since they can be kept as houseplants, or planted in the open, after the holiday[
Logging has been a threat in the past. Land clearance and grazing have also been significant threats in the past but are now less problematic. The impact of introduced invasive species has been significant: rabbits, goats and pigs were responsible for the loss of almost all vegetation on Phillip Island while exotic trees such as Psidium cattleianum and Olea europaea ssp. Cuspidata have colonised many areas on Norfolk Island itself to form dense impenetrable thickets. In the 1970s many Araucarias suffered from a dieback that was associated with habitat degradation and adverse environmental conditions. Improvements in land management practices, the introduction of a biological control and the removal of invasive species have led to a lessening of this problem although invasive species are still a major and ongoing threat. The plant is classified as 'Vulnerable' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species(2013)[
Pacific - Norfolk Island.
An emergent tree of forests in lowland areas[
|Other Uses Rating||
|Cultivation Status||Ornamental, Wild
Norfolk Island pine is native to a subtropical island, but is cultivated as an ornamental from the warm temperate zone to the tropics.
Succeeds in full sun and in partial shade[
]. Grows well in deep sand, but needs reliable water when young[
]. The plant is tolerant of salt and wind, making it ideal for coastal situations[
A slow-growing, but long-lived species[
Female cones are produced on trees older than 15 years, and male cones on trees older than 40 years[
Prolific seed fall occurs every 4 - 5 years[
A dioecious species, both male and female forms need to be grown if fruit and seed are required[
Seed - raw or cooked[
]. The oblong seeds are up to 3cm long, contained in a cone 12 - 15cm long[
The wood is soft[
]. It was at one time heavily exploited for construction[
]. A high quality wood, good for turning, it is used extensively by craftspeople in Hawaii[
Cuttings. Note:- cuttings taken from vigorous upright material will inherit normal upright growth habit, whilst cuttings taken from horizontal branches will root, but will maintain their horizontal growth habit rather than normal upright growth.
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