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Useful Tropical Plants

Araucaria heterophylla

(Salisb.) Franco

Araucariaceae

+ Synonyms

Abies columbaria (Dum.Cours.) Dum.Cours.

Araucaria excelsa glauca Carrière

Araucaria excelsa speciosissima Carrière

Eutacta excelsa aurea-variegata Carrière

Eutacta excelsa glauca (Carrière) Carrière

Eutacta excelsa monstrosa Carrière

Eutacta excelsa variegata-alba Carrière

Eutassa heterophylla Salisb.

Pinus columbaria Dum.Cours.

Common Name: Norfolk Island Pine

Araucaria heterophylla
Skyline of Norfolk Island pines in Gerringong, NSW Australia
Photograph by: John Tann
Creative Commons License
Araucaria heterophylla Araucaria heterophylla Araucaria heterophylla Araucaria heterophylla Araucaria heterophylla

General Information

Norfolk Island pine is an evergreen tree with a narrow, elongate, pyramidal crown comprised of regular tiers of short, horizontal, spreading branches; it can grow up to 65 metres tall in its native habitat, but is likely to be much smaller grown elsewhere. The straight, cylindrical bole is usually 40 - 60cm in diameter, with some old trees said to be up to 300cm; there are swellings or small buttresses at the base[
362
Title
Dominica Botanic Gardens
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.da-academy.org/trees_shrubs.html
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line resource, providing top quality pictures and some basic information on various plants being grown at the Botanic Gardens, often including uses and habitat.
].
A beautiful tree of symmetrical, pyramidal shape, it is widely planted as an ornamental and avenue tree throughout the subtropics and tropics. Small saplings are used as environmentally friendly Christmas trees, since they can be kept as houseplants, or planted in the open, after the holiday[
362
Title
Dominica Botanic Gardens
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.da-academy.org/trees_shrubs.html
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line resource, providing top quality pictures and some basic information on various plants being grown at the Botanic Gardens, often including uses and habitat.
].
Logging has been a threat in the past. Land clearance and grazing have also been significant threats in the past but are now less problematic. The impact of introduced invasive species has been significant: rabbits, goats and pigs were responsible for the loss of almost all vegetation on Phillip Island while exotic trees such as Psidium cattleianum and Olea europaea ssp. Cuspidata have colonised many areas on Norfolk Island itself to form dense impenetrable thickets. In the 1970s many Araucarias suffered from a dieback that was associated with habitat degradation and adverse environmental conditions. Improvements in land management practices, the introduction of a biological control and the removal of invasive species have led to a lessening of this problem although invasive species are still a major and ongoing threat. The plant is classified as 'Vulnerable' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species(2013)[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].

Known Hazards

None known

Botanical References

329
Title
The Gymnosperm Database
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.conifers.org/index.htm
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An extremely valuable website, providing a vast amount of information on conifers and families of gymnosperms.

Range

Pacific - Norfolk Island.

Habitat

An emergent tree of forests in lowland areas[
329
Title
The Gymnosperm Database
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.conifers.org/index.htm
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An extremely valuable website, providing a vast amount of information on conifers and families of gymnosperms.
,
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].

Properties

Conservation StatusVulnerable
Edibility Rating *  *
Other Uses Rating *  *
HabitEvergreen Tree
Height30.00 m
Growth RateSlow
PollinatorsWind
Self-fertileNo
Cultivation StatusOrnamental, Wild

Cultivation Details

Norfolk Island pine is native to a subtropical island, but is cultivated as an ornamental from the warm temperate zone to the tropics.
Succeeds in full sun and in partial shade[
352
Title
KemperCentreForHomeGardeningPlantFinder
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.mobot.org/gardeninghelp/plantfinder/
Publisher
Missouri Botanical Garden
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic cultivation details, plant uses, habitat etc for several thousand species of plants, mainly from the temperate zone.
]. Grows well in deep sand, but needs reliable water when young[
362
Title
Dominica Botanic Gardens
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.da-academy.org/trees_shrubs.html
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line resource, providing top quality pictures and some basic information on various plants being grown at the Botanic Gardens, often including uses and habitat.
]. The plant is tolerant of salt and wind, making it ideal for coastal situations[
362
Title
Dominica Botanic Gardens
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.da-academy.org/trees_shrubs.html
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line resource, providing top quality pictures and some basic information on various plants being grown at the Botanic Gardens, often including uses and habitat.
].
A slow-growing, but long-lived species[
352
Title
KemperCentreForHomeGardeningPlantFinder
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.mobot.org/gardeninghelp/plantfinder/
Publisher
Missouri Botanical Garden
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic cultivation details, plant uses, habitat etc for several thousand species of plants, mainly from the temperate zone.
].
Female cones are produced on trees older than 15 years, and male cones on trees older than 40 years[
329
Title
The Gymnosperm Database
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.conifers.org/index.htm
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An extremely valuable website, providing a vast amount of information on conifers and families of gymnosperms.
].
Prolific seed fall occurs every 4 - 5 years[
329
Title
The Gymnosperm Database
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.conifers.org/index.htm
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An extremely valuable website, providing a vast amount of information on conifers and families of gymnosperms.
].
A dioecious species, both male and female forms need to be grown if fruit and seed are required[
362
Title
Dominica Botanic Gardens
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.da-academy.org/trees_shrubs.html
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line resource, providing top quality pictures and some basic information on various plants being grown at the Botanic Gardens, often including uses and habitat.
].

Edible Uses

Seed - raw or cooked[
362
Title
Dominica Botanic Gardens
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.da-academy.org/trees_shrubs.html
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line resource, providing top quality pictures and some basic information on various plants being grown at the Botanic Gardens, often including uses and habitat.
]. The oblong seeds are up to 3cm long, contained in a cone 12 - 15cm long[
329
Title
The Gymnosperm Database
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.conifers.org/index.htm
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An extremely valuable website, providing a vast amount of information on conifers and families of gymnosperms.
,
362
Title
Dominica Botanic Gardens
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.da-academy.org/trees_shrubs.html
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line resource, providing top quality pictures and some basic information on various plants being grown at the Botanic Gardens, often including uses and habitat.
].

Medicinal

None known

Other Uses

The wood is soft[
448
Title
Trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Second Volume.
Publication
 
Author
Little E.L.; Woodbury R.O.;Wadsworth F.H.
Publisher
USDA, Forest Service; Washington.
Year
1974
ISBN
 
Description
Contains detailed information, and usually an illustration, on 500 tree species, including both native and exotic species.
]. It was at one time heavily exploited for construction[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
]. A high quality wood, good for turning, it is used extensively by craftspeople in Hawaii[
362
Title
Dominica Botanic Gardens
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.da-academy.org/trees_shrubs.html
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line resource, providing top quality pictures and some basic information on various plants being grown at the Botanic Gardens, often including uses and habitat.
].

Propagation

Seed -
Cuttings. Note:- cuttings taken from vigorous upright material will inherit normal upright growth habit, whilst cuttings taken from horizontal branches will root, but will maintain their horizontal growth habit rather than normal upright growth.

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