Azukia angularis (Willd.) Ohwi.
Dolichos angularis Willd.
Phaseolus angularis (Willd.) W.Wight
Phaseolus chrysanthos Savi
Phaseolus nipponensis Ohwi
Common Name: Adzuki Bean
Adzuki bean is an annual plant growing 25 - 90cm tall. The plant can be erect and bushy, or can produce climbing stems that scramble over the ground or twine into the surrounding vegetation for support[
The plant has long been cultivated in warm temperate to tropical areas of Asia for its edible seed[
]. It is now widely grown in moister tropical and subtropical areas around the world[
]. As well as providing food, the plant is also used as a traditional medicine and is grown as a green manure and ground cover.
E. Asia - probably originated in Japan or southern China, but long cultivated and no longer known in the wild.
Not known in the wild
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Adzuki bean is a plant of the subtropics, and is widely cultivated from the temperate zone to higher elevations in the tropics, where it is can be grown at elevations from 420 - 1,500 metres. It grows best in areas where annual daytime temperatures are within the range 15 - 30°c, but can tolerate 5 - 36°c[
]. The plant cannot tolerate frost. It prefers a mean annual rainfall in the range 900 - 1,300mm, but tolerates 530 - 1,800mm[
]. It is generally seen as a short-day plant, requiring a day length of 12½ hours or less to initiate flowering and fruiting, though cultivars can vary in their response to day length[
Requires a sunny position[
]. Succeeds in a wide range of well-drained soils[
]. Prefers a pH in the range 5.5 - 6.5, tolerating 5 - 7.5[
]. Some cultivars are fairly drought tolerant[
The plant can commence cropping within 60 - 190 days from seed[
Average seed yields range from 1 - 2.5 tonnes per hectare. In Taiwan yields of 1,450 kilos are common, in Japan 1,900 kilos, in Kenya 500 - 600 kilos and in New Zealand 1,340 - 2,240 kilos[
There are many named varieties[
This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby[
]. When removing plant remains at the end of the growing season, it is best to only remove the aerial parts of the plant, leaving the roots in the ground to decay and release their nitrogen.
Mature seed - cooked. The dried bean is boiled and used in a wide variety of dishes. The beans can also be popped in much the same way as popcorn[
]. The dried seeds can be ground into a meal and used in soups, cakes or confections[
]. The seeds are often sprouted and then eaten either raw or cooked[
]. The cylindrical pods can be 6 - 12cm long, containing 6 - 14 seeds[
Tender young pods are cooked as a vegetable[
]. The seedpods are up to 10cm long[
The roasted seed has been used as a coffee substitute[
The beans are used to treat diseases like kidney trouble, constipation, abscesses, certain tumours, threatened miscarriage, retained placenta and non-secretion of milk[
The seed sprouts are used to treat threatened abortion caused by injury[
The leaves are said to lower fevers[
The plant can be grown as a green manure and to prevent soil erosion[
A flour made from the beans is used in making shampoos and facial creams[
Seed - pre-soak the seed for 12 hours in warm water and sow in situ. It requires soil temperatures above 16 °c for germination[
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