Citharexylum paniculatum Poir.
Cornutia corymbosa Burm.f.
Gumira abbreviata (Miq.) Kuntze
Gumira attenuata (R.Br.) Kuntze
Gumira ceramensis (Miq.) Kuntze
Gumira cyclophylla (Miq.) Kuntze
Gumira dallachyana (Benth.) Kuntze
Gumira divaricata (Wall. ex Schauer) Kuntze
Gumira domestica Hassk.
Gumira foetida (Reinw. ex Blume) Hassk.
Gumira integrifolia Hassk.
Gumira laevigata (Miq.) Kuntze
Gumira limbata (Benth.) Kuntze
Gumira nauseosa (Blanco) Kuntze
Gumira nitida (K.Schum.) Kuntze
Gumira opulifolia (Miq.) Kuntze
Gumira punctulata (C.B.Clarke) Kuntze
Gumira truncata (Turcz.) Kuntze
Premna abbreviata Miq.
Premna acuminatissima Merr.
Premna angustior (C.B.Clarke) Ridl
Premna arborea Farw.
Premna atra Merr.
Premna attenuata R.Br.
Premna benguetensis C.B.Rob.
Premna benthamiana Domin
Premna borneensis H.J.Lam
Premna brongersmai H.J.Lam
Premna capitata A.Meeuse
Premna ceramensis Miq.
Premna congesta Merr.
Premna corymbosa (Burm.f.) Schauer
Premna cyclophylla Miq.
Premna dallachyana Benth.
Premna dentatifolia Moldenke
Premna divaricata Wall. ex Schauer
Premna foetida Reinw. ex Blume
Premna gaudichaudii Schauer
Premna glabra A.Gray ex Maxim.
Premna glandulifera Merr.
Premna glandulosa Merr.
Premna glycycocca F.Muell.
Premna guillauminii serrata Moldenke
Premna hircina Wall.
Premna integrifolia L.
Premna integrifolia Willd.
Premna kunstleri King & Gamble
Premna laevigata Miq.
Premna lamii Moldenke
Premna leucostoma Náves ex Fern.-Vill.
Premna leytensis Merr.
Premna limbata Benth.
Premna lucidula Kurz
Premna macrophylla H.J.Lam
Premna media R.Br.
Premna membranifolia Merr.
Premna nauseosa Blanco
Premna nitida K.Schum.
Premna obtusifolia R.Br.
Premna obtusifolia serratifolia (L.) Moldenke
Premna octonervia Merr. & F.P.Metcalf
Premna opulifolia Miq.
Premna ovata R.Br.
Premna paniculata H.R.Fletcher
Premna papuana Wernham
Premna parviflora H.J.Lam
Premna perrottetii C.B.Clarke
Premna populifolia Miq.
Premna punctulata C.B.Clarke
Premna sambucina Wall. ex Schauer
Premna spinosa Roxb.
Premna subcordata Turcz.
Premna subglabra Merr.
Premna sumatrana Ridl.
Premna tahitensis rapensis F.Br.
Premna tahitensis rimatarensis F.Br.
Premna tateana F.M.Bailey
Premna tiliifolia Zipp. ex Span.
Premna timoriana Decne.
Premna truncata Turcz.
Premna woodii Moldenke
Premna wrayi King & Gamble
Scrophularioides arborea G.Forst.
Cultivated plant in Bangalore
Photograph by: Forestowlet
Premna serratifolia is a much-branched and sometimes spiny shrub or small tree with a low crown and branches that are often procumbent and root into the ground; it can grow up to 10 metres tall. The bole can be quite short, it is up to 30cm in diameter[
The edible leaves are gathered from the wild for local use, and are sometimes sold in local markets[
]. The plant also provides medicines, fibre and wood for local use. It is cultivated as an ornamental and shade-providing tree, and is also sometimes grown in hedges[
Eastern Africa, across the Indian Ocean and through tropical Asia to Australia and the Pacific Islands.
Forest regrowth, brushwood and hedges, often near the sea[
]. Mixed and open forests on mountain slopes and along streams at elevations of 100 - 300 metres in southern China[
|Other Uses Rating||
|Cultivation Status||Cultivated, Ornamental, Wild
Found in the wild on sandy soils and limestone[
The whole plant has an agreeable aromatic smell[
Plants can flower and produce fruit all year round[
An extremely variable plant, especially in the leaves and calyces[
Leaves - cooked and eaten as a vegetable[
]. A somewhat acid flavour[
The seeds are sometimes eaten by children[
The ripe fruits have sometimes been eaten with yams in the Pacific[
The leaves and roots are used in traditional medicine as a diuretic, galactagogue, stomachic and febrifuge[
]. They are used in treating conditions such as fever, colic, diarrhoea, dysentery, urine retention, flatulence, dyspepsia and rheumatism[
The root has a warm bitter taste and agreeable smell, it is prescribed in decoction as a gentle cordial and stomachic in fevers[
The leaves are used as a galactagogue, and also to treat rheumatic arthritis; colic and flatulence; coughs, headaches and fevers[
]. The leaves, combined with those of morinda citrifolia, are squeezed into water and the solution drunk twice a day to treat severe malarial fevers[
A steam bath made from the leaves and young stems is breathed in as a treatment for fevers. The cooled solution is then used to bathe the body[
The leaves are boiled into medicinal tea that is reputed to have analgesic effects. This home remedy is used mostly in the treatment of backaches[
A tea made from the boiled bark is used to treat neuralgia[
The stem-bark contains the aIkaIoids premnine and graniarine[
The roots yield an essential oil[
The leaves and roots can be gathered all the year round. They are well washed and then dried in the sun or in ovens[
The plant is used locally in hedges[
The bark is used as a binding material[
The leaves and roots are used to perfume coconut oil[
A dye is obtained from the root[
]. The root-bark of this plant affords a yellowish-brown powder giving an orange-brown tincture with alcohol[
The wood is a light, creamy brown. It is pleasantly scented, beautifully veined, close-grained, very hard and durable, though it can also be knotty and often crooked[
]. It is much used in traditional construction and also for tool and knife handles, implements and paddles[
The wood is used for fuel and also for making fire by friction[
Low branches often self-layer[
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