A very variable species, possibly a swarm of apomicts[
], but the variation in Africa is continuous.
Paspalum adelogaeum Steud.
Paspalum akoense Hayata
Paspalum amazonicum Trin.
Paspalum auriculatum J.Presl
Paspalum barbatum Schumach.
Paspalum borbonicum teud.
Paspalum boscianum Flüggé
Paspalum cartilagineum J.Presl
Paspalum coloratum Rich. ex Döll
Paspalum commersonii Lam.
Paspalum commutatum Nees
Paspalum confertum J.Le Conte
Paspalum coromandelinum Lam.
Paspalum deightonii (C.E.Hubb.) Clayton
Paspalum dissectum grande Nees
Paspalum firmum Trin.
Paspalum frumentaceum Rottler ex P.Beauv
Paspalum horneri Henrard
Paspalum jardinii Steud.
Paspalum kora Willd.
Paspalum ledermannii Mez
Paspalum longifolium pseudo-orbiculare Jansen
Paspalum mauritanicum Nees ex Steud.
Paspalum metabolon Steud.
Paspalum metzii Steud.
Paspalum moratii Toutain
Paspalum orbiculare G.Forst.
Paspalum palustre Vanderyst
Paspalum polo F.M.Bailey
Paspalum polystachyum R.Br.
Paspalum puberulum Roem. & Schult.
Paspalum pubescens R.Br.
Paspalum purpurascens Elliott
Paspalum serpens J.Presl ex Trin.
Paspalum thunbergii minus Makino
Paspalum virgatum Walter
Paspalum zollingeri teud.
Common Name: Kodo Millet
Paspalum scrobiculatum is a loosely tufted, shallow rooting grass which can reach a height of 30 - 90cm depending upon variety[
]. The wild form is a short-lived perennial plant, but forms cultivated for their seed are generally treated as annuals.
The plant is cultivated as a minor cereal crop in some parts of the tropics, particularly India[
There is one report that, unless special precautions are taken the seed is apt to act as a narcotic poison, producing delirium and vomiting[
]. This report is very likely to be a misidentification or a confusion with fungal infection of the seed with ergot[
], since the plant is commonly used as a food and is reported in many other sources[
, 418 et al] as being wholesome[
Tropical areas of Africa; E. Asia - China, India, Malaysia, Indo-China to Australia.
Roadsides, weedy places, often on damp soils, in southern China[
]. Common in semi-swamp forest, damp grassland and swamps[
|Cultivation Status||Cultivated, Wild
A plant of low to fairly high elevations in the tropics and subtropics, being found from sea level to 3,000 metres[
]. It grows best in areas where the mean annual temperature ranges from 25 - 27°c, also succeeding in the range 5 - 33°c[
]. It prefers a mean annual rainfall in the range 1,000 - 1,600mm, but can tolerate 800 - 4,300mm[
Tolerates a wide range of soils, from fertile clay loams to sandy loams, but prefers a light, moderately fertile, porous soil in full sun[
]. Plants can succeed in wet soils and are tolerant of flooding[
]. Prefers a pH in the range 4.8 - 6, but can tolerate 4.3 - 8[
Plants spread readily by means of self-sown seedlings and can become a weed in agricultural land[
When grown as a grain crop, the seed can be harvested after 120 - 180 days[
]. The seed ripens over a period of three to four months, the seeds fall as they mature, which makes seed harvesting difficult[
Seed - eaten cooked, it can be used like rice, boiled or parched and ground into flour[
]. It can also be popped like popcorn[
]. The grain contains about 60% carbohydrate and 10% protein[
Seed - it germinates best at a temperature of 20-35°c. Sow in situ on a well-prepared, very fine seedbed, only just covering the seed[
The seed only remains viable for 12 months[
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