Acacia niopo Llanos
Inga timoriana DC.
Mimosa peregrina Blanco
Parkia calcarata Gagnep.
Parkia grandis Hassk.
Parkia roxburghii G.Don
Cultivated tree at Kahanu Gardens NTBG Kaeleku Hana, Maui, Hawaii
Photograph by: Forest and Kim Starr
Parkia timoriana is a briefly deciduous tree growing up to 50 metres tall. The bole can be 81cm in diameter[
]. The bole often has plank buttresses at the base that can be 1 - 4 metres tall and spreading 1 - 2 metres or more outwards[
The tree is gathered from the wild and used locally as a source of medicines, a hair shampoo and for food.
E. Asia - northeast India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, New Guinea.
An upper canopy tree in lowland rain forest, mixed deciduous and dry evergreen forests, sometimes common; at elevations from sea level to 600 metres, occasionally ascending to 1,300 metres[
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Grows best in fertile soils with a pH of 5 - 7[
There are conflicting reports on whether or not this tree has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, so it is unclear as to whether this tree fixes atmospheric nitrogen[
Seeds - cooked[
]. They can be eaten as a substitute for the seeds of Parkia speciosa after roasting, or when young, but they have a bitter flavour[
The germinated seeds are consumed[
The seeds are considered beneficial in the treatment of hepatalgia, oedema, nephritis, diabetes and colic, probably as a result of their diuretic and relaxing activity[
]. They are also used as an anthelmintic[
The ripe seeds, roasted and powdered, can be ingested as a medicine for colic, flatulence and stomach ache, or can be used in remedies for cholera or menstrual cramps[
Powdered seeds are applied externally to wounds, ulcers, and the abdomen to relieve pain[
The leaves can be ground up as an ingredient in a remedy for colic[
The leaves and/or the bark are applied topically in order to clean wounds and ulcers, and as a cure for scabies[
The bark is used externally as a treatment against scabies, boils, and abscesses[
The tree is sometimes grown to provide shade in coffee plantations and nurseries[
The pods, pounded with water, are used as a hair shampoo[
Seed - it has a hard testa and germinates over several weeks after sowing[
]. The seed benefits from scarification before sowing in order to speed up and improve germination. This can usually be done by pouring a small amount of nearly boiling water on the seeds (being careful not to cook them!) and then soaking them for 12 - 24 hours in warm water. By this time they should have imbibed moisture and swollen - if they have not, then carefully make a nick in the seedcoat (being careful not to damage the embryo) and soak for a further 12 hours before sowing[
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