Pandanus indicus (Gaudich.) Warb.
Pandanus mellori Boden-Kloss
Pandanus millore Roxb.
Roussinia indica Gaudich.
Common Name: Nicobar Breadfruit
Pandanus leram is an evergreen tree growing around 12 - 16 metres tall. A number of robust, aerial prop roots are produced from the main stam. The sword-shaped leaves are up to 200cm long and 6 - 8cm wide at their base - they are produced in clusters near the apices of the branches[
The plant is gathered from the wild for local use as a food and a source of materials. It is an important plant for the local people of Nicobar Island, where the oil-rich fruit is used as a staple food[
E. Asia - Nicobar and Andaman Islands to Indonesia (Sumatera, Java).
]. Found in low swampy areas away from the seashore in lowlands and along water courses where the soil is moist and heavy[
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A plant of the moist tropical lowlands[
], found in areas where the temperature ranges from 22°c - 32°c, with a mean relative humidity of about 82% and the annual rainfall ranges from 3,000 - 3,900 mm[
Species in this genus generally grow well in most moist, well-dained soils and a sunny position[
]. This species is often found in the wild growing in moist, heavy soils, where it is often the dominant vegetation[
Branches do not have dormant buds and so will not resprout if cut back into the old wood[
A dioecious species, both male and female forms need to be grown if fruits and seed are required.
Fruit - cooked[
]. Rich in carbohydrates, it is boiled in water for 1 - 2 hours then scooped off and prepared into various dishes or pressed into cakes for later use[
]. The flavour of the mass thus prepared strongly resembles that of apple marmalade. Traditionally, the fruit mass is covered with thick layers of the leaves of Macaranga nicobarica and cooked for 1 - 2 hours before being scooped off. It is mixed with various other food ingredients like pig fat and sugar in order to prepare different types of dishes[
The globose compound fruit (cephalium) consists of many, wedge-shaped fruitlets, each made up of a number of hard, woody, individual drupes[
]. Each wedge has a fleshy base imbued with a sweet-smelling, orange pulp. This pulp is considered to be inedible when raw due to the presence of a deleterious substance[
Although no specific records have yet been seen for this species, most members of this genus also have more or less edible seeds and inner leaf bases[
The seed often has a delicious nutty flavour when eaten raw or cooked, though it is fiddly to extract[
]. Seeds contain 44 - 50% fat and 20 - 34% protein[
Inner base of young leaves - raw[
The tender young leaves are pounded with coconut oil and rubbed on the body to remove fatigue[
The leaves are used for thatching, making mats etc[
The fibrous portions of the drupes are combed out into a kind of brush which is used for removing dust from the feet[
The dried fruit with fibres are used as tooth brushes[
The dissected split leaves are made into brooms[
Seed - best pre-soaked for 24 hours prior to sowing[
]. This species propagates readily from seed[
Cuttings taken from side branches[
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