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Useful Tropical Plants

Macrozamia miquelii

(F.Muell.) A.DC.

Zamiaceae


This species is part of a complex of closely related taxa occurring in a mosaic pattern in southern Queensland[
990
Title
The Cycad Pages
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/PlantNet/cycad/wlist.html
Publisher
Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney.
Year
2012
ISBN
 
Description
A website dedicated to the various species of Cycad, with a comprehensive description of all the known species (as of 2012). At present (2015), the site is still running but is no longer being updated
]. Although we have seen no specific information, it is most likely that the other taxa have the same uses as this one[
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
].

+ Synonyms

Encephalartos miquelii F.Meull.

Macrozamia elegantissima W.Bull

Macrozamia mackenzii Mast.

Macrozamia spiralis cylindrica Regel

Macrozamia tridentata cylindrica (W.Bull) J.Schust.

Macrozamia tridentata mackenzii (Mast.) J.Schust.

Macrozamia tridentata milkaui J.Schust.

Macrozamia tridentata miquelii (F.Muell.) J.Schust.

Macrozamia tridentata oblongifolia Regel

Zamia miquelii Regel

Zamia occidentalis Lodd. ex Miq.

Zamia unidentata Miq.

Common Name:

Macrozamia miquelii
Plant growing in native habitat in Mount Archer National Park, Rockhampton, Queensland.
Photograph by: Ethel Aardvark
Creative Commons License
Macrozamia miquelii Macrozamia miquelii Macrozamia miquelii Macrozamia miquelii

General Information

Macrozamia miquelii is a slow-growing, evergreen, usually stemless, palm-like shrub producing a rosette of 30 - 80, erect to spreading leaves in the crown, the leaves being 80 - 210cm long[
286
Title
Flora of Australia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.anbg.gov.au/abrs/abif/flora/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
The full information from the Flora of Australia - on-line. An excellent resource.
]. If a stem is formed, then it is generally up to 40cm long and 30 - 40cm in diameter[
286
Title
Flora of Australia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.anbg.gov.au/abrs/abif/flora/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
The full information from the Flora of Australia - on-line. An excellent resource.
,
1935
Title
The Cycads
Publication
 
Author
Whitelock L.M.
Publisher
Timber Press; Portland, Oregon
Year
2002
ISBN
0-88192-522-5
Description
An excellent book dealing with the eleven different genera and almost 300 species of plants we know as Cycads. There are detailed descriptions and a host of other information for each species.
]. The stem can be up to 1 metre long[
440
Title
Brisbane Rainforest Action and Information Network,
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.brisrain.webcentral.com.au
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Information on plants in the Queensland Rainforests.
,
1935
Title
The Cycads
Publication
 
Author
Whitelock L.M.
Publisher
Timber Press; Portland, Oregon
Year
2002
ISBN
0-88192-522-5
Description
An excellent book dealing with the eleven different genera and almost 300 species of plants we know as Cycads. There are detailed descriptions and a host of other information for each species.
].
Although poisonous, the seeds were a traditional food of the Australian Aborigines. The plant is sometimes grown as an ornamental
A locally abundant species, but its population is decreasing. It is classified as 'Least Concern' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species(2011)[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].

Known Hazards

The raw seed is toxic and requires treatment prior to eating it[
46
Title
Dictionary of Economic Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Uphof. J. C. Th.
Publisher
Weinheim
Year
1959
ISBN
-
Description
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
].
We have no further specific information for this species, but most if not all members of this genus are believed to contain toxins. The two main toxic compounds that have been identified are cycasin and macrozamin. When ingested in sufficient quantities, these compounds are extremely poisonous to humans and many other animals, and have been shown to cause liver damage and cancer. Cycasin and macrozamin have a cumulative effect upon the body and are suspected of causing neurological disorders when ingested in small amounts over long periods of time.
There is a long history of human use of this genus as a starch-rich food, but it should be noted that the plants needed to be treated in various ways in order to remove any toxic principles. Caution should be exercised even with properly prepared foods, since even then regular consumption may lead to severe health problems and death. Since many of these species are becoming increasingly rare in the wild, this is probably a food best left to times of food shortage when other, better foods, are not available[
1935
Title
The Cycads
Publication
 
Author
Whitelock L.M.
Publisher
Timber Press; Portland, Oregon
Year
2002
ISBN
0-88192-522-5
Description
An excellent book dealing with the eleven different genera and almost 300 species of plants we know as Cycads. There are detailed descriptions and a host of other information for each species.
,
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
].

Botanical References

200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
,
286
Title
Flora of Australia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.anbg.gov.au/abrs/abif/flora/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
The full information from the Flora of Australia - on-line. An excellent resource.

Range

Australia - New South Wales, Queensland.

Habitat

Scattered in sclerophyll forests in poor soils[
286
Title
Flora of Australia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.anbg.gov.au/abrs/abif/flora/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
The full information from the Flora of Australia - on-line. An excellent resource.
]. On ridges and slopes in open forest, along the margins of streams and in and around the fringes of rainforest; at elevations up to 500 metres[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].

Properties

Conservation StatusLeast Concern
Edibility Rating *
Other Uses Rating *  *
HabitEvergreen Shrub
Height2.00 m
Growth RateSlow
PollinatorsInsects
Self-fertileNo
Cultivation StatusOrnamental, Wild

Cultivation Details

Macrozamia miquelii is a plant mainly of lowland subtropical climates. It grows in a region where the temperatures are in
the range 22 - 32°c in the summer, and 10 - 24°c in the winter Mean annual rainfall is within the range 900 - 1,350mm[
1935
Title
The Cycads
Publication
 
Author
Whitelock L.M.
Publisher
Timber Press; Portland, Oregon
Year
2002
ISBN
0-88192-522-5
Description
An excellent book dealing with the eleven different genera and almost 300 species of plants we know as Cycads. There are detailed descriptions and a host of other information for each species.
].
An easy plant to grow, accepting full sun and partial shade[
314
Title
Palm and Cycad Societies of Australia.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.pacsoa.org.au/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Contains at least a little information on the majority of palm and cycad species, plus a wealth of photographs. A first class website.
]. Requires a well-drained soil[
440
Title
Brisbane Rainforest Action and Information Network,
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.brisrain.webcentral.com.au
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Information on plants in the Queensland Rainforests.
]. Succeeds in the wild in a wide range of soils and situations, from rich peat to grit; in soils from almost swampy to dry rocks; and in shade as well as full sun[
385
Title
Bihrmann's Caudiciforms
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.bihrmann.com/caudiciforms/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An internet site giving information on caudiciform plants (plants with swollen stem bases such as the Baobab tree, cycads and many succulents). Excellent photos, usually of cultivated plants in pots.
].
A slow-growing species[
440
Title
Brisbane Rainforest Action and Information Network,
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.brisrain.webcentral.com.au
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Information on plants in the Queensland Rainforests.
].
This is a restricted species in Queensland and, as such, a license is required to harvest, propagate trade or deal with it in any way[
440
Title
Brisbane Rainforest Action and Information Network,
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.brisrain.webcentral.com.au
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Information on plants in the Queensland Rainforests.
].
Cycad species can usually be transplanted easily even when quite large. The best time for moving them is just before the beginning of a new growing season, the roots being trimmed if they are damaged and perhaps some leaves being removed. New roots should develop quickly as the season progresses[
1935
Title
The Cycads
Publication
 
Author
Whitelock L.M.
Publisher
Timber Press; Portland, Oregon
Year
2002
ISBN
0-88192-522-5
Description
An excellent book dealing with the eleven different genera and almost 300 species of plants we know as Cycads. There are detailed descriptions and a host of other information for each species.
].
Species in this genus form structures known as coralloid roots. These roots branch off from the taproot or secondary roots and are distinctive in that they grow laterally or upward, forming a nodular mass at the apex. These coralloid roots occur slightly below or slightly above the soil surface and generally contain cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae. These are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen and make it available as a nutrient to the plant. The ability to extract this important nutrient from the air explains how many cycad species are able to survive on almost sterile soils[
1935
Title
The Cycads
Publication
 
Author
Whitelock L.M.
Publisher
Timber Press; Portland, Oregon
Year
2002
ISBN
0-88192-522-5
Description
An excellent book dealing with the eleven different genera and almost 300 species of plants we know as Cycads. There are detailed descriptions and a host of other information for each species.
].
A dioecious species, with individual plants producing either all male or all female cones. Therefore both male and female forms of the plant need to be grown if seed is required[
1935
Title
The Cycads
Publication
 
Author
Whitelock L.M.
Publisher
Timber Press; Portland, Oregon
Year
2002
ISBN
0-88192-522-5
Description
An excellent book dealing with the eleven different genera and almost 300 species of plants we know as Cycads. There are detailed descriptions and a host of other information for each species.
]. On very rare occasions, usually when a plant has been under severe stress, it can change sex and produce either all female or all male cones[
1935
Title
The Cycads
Publication
 
Author
Whitelock L.M.
Publisher
Timber Press; Portland, Oregon
Year
2002
ISBN
0-88192-522-5
Description
An excellent book dealing with the eleven different genera and almost 300 species of plants we know as Cycads. There are detailed descriptions and a host of other information for each species.
].

Edible Uses

Seed - cooked[
46
Title
Dictionary of Economic Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Uphof. J. C. Th.
Publisher
Weinheim
Year
1959
ISBN
-
Description
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
]. The raw seed is toxic and needs to be treated to make it edible[
46
Title
Dictionary of Economic Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Uphof. J. C. Th.
Publisher
Weinheim
Year
1959
ISBN
-
Description
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
]. The Australian Aborigines would do this by several methods - one involved cooking the seed in ashes, another involved soaking the seeds in water for several days, then pounding them[
46
Title
Dictionary of Economic Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Uphof. J. C. Th.
Publisher
Weinheim
Year
1959
ISBN
-
Description
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
].The seeds were made fit to eat by a laborious process of cracking, soaking, grinding and baking[
193
Title
Wild Food Plants of Australia.
Publication
 
Author
Low. T.
Publisher
Angus and Robertson.
Year
1989
ISBN
0-207-14383-8
Description
Well presented, clear information and good photographs. An interesting read for the casual reader as well as the enthusiast
]. Old, shrivelled seeds are said to be edible raw[
193
Title
Wild Food Plants of Australia.
Publication
 
Author
Low. T.
Publisher
Angus and Robertson.
Year
1989
ISBN
0-207-14383-8
Description
Well presented, clear information and good photographs. An interesting read for the casual reader as well as the enthusiast
]. The seed is around 23 - 35mm long and 18 - 25mm in diameter[
1935
Title
The Cycads
Publication
 
Author
Whitelock L.M.
Publisher
Timber Press; Portland, Oregon
Year
2002
ISBN
0-88192-522-5
Description
An excellent book dealing with the eleven different genera and almost 300 species of plants we know as Cycads. There are detailed descriptions and a host of other information for each species.
].
When ripe, the seeds are orange-red in colour and separate freely from the seed cone. They are baked for about half an hour under ashes, the outside covers and stones are then broken, and the kernels are split then put into a dilly-bag and carried to a stream or pond, where they remain six or eight days before they are fit for eating[
601
Title
The Useful Native Plants of Australia.
Publication
 
Author
Maiden J.H.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Turner & Co.; London.
Year
1889
ISBN
 
Description
Terse details of the uses of many Australian plants and other species naturalised, or at least growing, in Australia. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
].

Medicinal

None known

Other Uses

The starch contained in the trunk has been processed and used in laundries[
193
Title
Wild Food Plants of Australia.
Publication
 
Author
Low. T.
Publisher
Angus and Robertson.
Year
1989
ISBN
0-207-14383-8
Description
Well presented, clear information and good photographs. An interesting read for the casual reader as well as the enthusiast
].

Soft brown hairs are formed on the bases of the young leaves[
156
Title
Useful Wild Plants in Australia.
Publication
 
Author
Cribb. A. B. and J. W.
Publisher
William Collins Pty Ltd. Sidney
Year
1981
ISBN
0-00-216441-8
Description
A very readable book.
]. These have at times been harvested from wild plants and used as a stuffing material in pillows, upholstery etc[
156
Title
Useful Wild Plants in Australia.
Publication
 
Author
Cribb. A. B. and J. W.
Publisher
William Collins Pty Ltd. Sidney
Year
1981
ISBN
0-00-216441-8
Description
A very readable book.
].

A gum is exuded from the cones, stems and bases of the leaves, often as a result of insect or other damage.
Gums of the various species of Macrozamia are nearly identical in character. It occurs in flattened pieces resembling 'button lac', in scaly pieces that have been likened to unbleached and unpurified gelatin, and in tears. Placed in water, the gum begins to swell almost immediately. The absorption of water goes on for several days, by the end of which the gum has swollen to from 50 - 100 times its original size. It then has the appearance of a colourless, quivering jelly. This behavior is much like that of cherry or acacia gums to which Macrozamia gums are apparently quite similar[
1934
Title
Economic Botany of the Cycads
Publication
Econ Bot 12, 3-41 (1958)
Author
Thieret J.W.
Website
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02863122
Publisher
 
Year
1958
ISBN
 
Description
 
].
The gum of Macrozamia was suspected once of being responsible for the poisonous effects of these plants but has been exonerated[
1934
Title
Economic Botany of the Cycads
Publication
Econ Bot 12, 3-41 (1958)
Author
Thieret J.W.
Website
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02863122
Publisher
 
Year
1958
ISBN
 
Description
 
]

Propagation

Seed - it is easy to germinate from fresh seed, though it might take 2 years to do so[
440
Title
Brisbane Rainforest Action and Information Network,
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.brisrain.webcentral.com.au
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Information on plants in the Queensland Rainforests.
].
Cite as: Tropical Plants Database, Ken Fern. tropical.theferns.info. 2022-11-27. <tropical.theferns.info/viewtropical.php?id=Macrozamia+miquelii>

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