Broussonetia plumerii Spreng.
Broussonetia tinctoria (L.) Kunth
Broussonetia zanthoxylon (L.) Mart.
Chlorophora mollis Fernald
Chlorophora mora (Griseb.) Lillo
Chlorophora reticulate Herzog
Chlorophora tinctoria (L.) Gaudich. ex Benth.
Fusticus tataiba Raf.
Fusticus tinctorius (L.) Raf.
Fusticus vera Raf.
Fusticus zanthoxylon (L.) Raf.
Ioxylon mora (Griseb.) Kuntze
Maclura affinis Miq.
Maclura chlorocarpa Liebm.
Maclura mora Griseb.
Maclura plumerii (Spreng.) D. Don ex Steud.
Maclura polyneura Miq.
Maclura sempervirens Ten.
Maclura sieberi Blume
Maclura subintegerrima Miq.
Maclura trilobata Rojas Acosta
Maclura velutina Blume
Maclura zanthoxylon (L.) Endl.
Morus tinctoria L.
Morus zanthoxylon L.
Common Name: Fustic Tree
Maclura tinctoria is a spiny, deciduous plant; sometimes a shrub, but more commonly becoming a tree growing 15 - 30 metres tall with a dense, spreading crown[
]. The straight, cylindrical bole is usually 30 - 60cm in diameter, but can be up to 100cm, and sometimes has buttresses[
The wood of this tree yields the dyestuff 'fustic', long an important export item from tropical America to the United States and Europe[
]. Local people have long utilised this tree for a variety of purposes, particularly for the wood which is a source of dyes and timber, but also for medicinal purposes and its edible fruit[
]. The tree is also occasionally cultivated as an ornamental[
Maclura tinctoria has a very widespread distribution, and is known to be found in a variety of ecological habitats, both primary and secondary, wet and dry. The population size, it is assumed to be large due to the plant's widespread distribution. The species used to be used for dye, but now the main use of the species is for timber. There are concerns that this practise may lead to decline in some areas, and will need further investigation. It is not thought to be declining with more than 30% over the last three generations. The plant is classified as 'Least Concern' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species(2013)[
S. America - Argentina, Paraguay north to the Caribbean and through Central America to Mexico.
Moist or usually dry thickets or forest in the tierra caliente, common in the plains and lowlands of Guatemala[
]. Found in a wide range of forest formations in Brazil, especially in secondary growth[
|Conservation Status||Least Concern
|Other Uses Rating||
|Cultivation Status||Ornamental, Wild
Requires a sunny position[
]. Prefers a moist soil[
]. Succeeds in most soils[
Young plants have a moderate rate of growth[
A dioecious tree, both male and female forms need to be grown if seed is required[
Fruit - raw[
]. A succulent, sweet tasting pulp[
]. The fruit is about 2cm in diameter[
The bark is astringent, tonic and vermifuge, in large doses it is purgative[
A natural pioneer plant in its native range, and supplying food, medicines and commodities, this species should be a good choice as a pioneer for establishing a woodland garden, although its growth rate is only moderate[
The wood is valued as a source of dyes[
]. The colouring principle, maclurin, gives a yellowish brown or khaki colour much used for military uniforms[
]. With other dyes it gives various colours for cotton and silk materials, and also a permanent black[
All parts of the plant exude a yellow latex when wounded[
The heartwood is of various shades of yellow to light green, lustrous, becoming reddish or brownish on exposure; it is clearly demarcated from the white sapwood. The texture is usually fine; the grain variable, often interlocked; luster is high; odour and taste are lacking or not distinctive. The wood is hard, heavy, tough, strong, and durable with a fairly straight or somewhat interwoven close grain. It is not very difficult to work, finishes smoothly, and takes a good polish. It is sometimes used in regions where it is plentiful for interior finish, cart wheels, construction, flooring, furniture and other purposes[
Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a partially shaded position in a nursery seedbed. A low germination rate can be expected, with the seed sprouting within 10 - 20 days[
Cuttings of half-ripe wood[
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