Arundarbor levis (Blanco) Kuntze
Bambusa levis Blanco
Dendrocalamus curranii Gamble
Gigantochloa heteroclada Stapf
Gigantochloa scribneriana Merr.
Gigantochloa levis is an evergreen, clump-forming bamboo that can grow 15 - 20 metres tall. The thin-walled, erect, woody culms can be 9 - 13cm in diameter with internodes 20 - 45cm long; aerial roots are produced from the nodes[
The plant is often cultivated in parts of southeast Asia, where it is known as a bamboo which yields good quality edible shoots and also long, straight canes[
]. Production and trade of edible shoots and strong culms is locally important[
The orininal range is not known. The plant is naturalized in the Philippines and cultivated there and in Borneo.
Not known in the wild but naturalized in the Philippines where it grows in secondary forest and abounds in and around towns and villages in the lowland[310,345].
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Grows reasonably well on a large range of sites, except where the soil is too sandy or too dry[
Five year old plants in a plantation started from cuttings each yielded an average of 9.4 culms around 10.4 metres tall and 11cm in diameter[
]. The average number of young shoots produced by the plants the plants was around 6, which increased to 10 - 15 in their tenth year[
Bamboos have an interesting method of growth. Each plant produces a number of new stems annually - these stems grow to their maximum height in their first year of growth, subsequent growth in the stem being limited to the production of new side branches and leaves. In the case of some mature tropical species the new stem could be as much as 30 metres tall, with daily increases in height of 30cm or more during their peak growth time. This makes them some of the fastest-growing species in the world[
Bamboos in general are usually monocarpic, living for many years before flowering, then flowering and seeding profusely for a period of 1 - 3 years before usually dying. Bamboos in general are usually monocarpic, living for many years before flowering, then flowering and seeding profusely for a period of 1 - 3 years before usually dying. This pattern can vary - sometimes flowering is sporadic, with plants flowering annually and not dying; at other times it is gregarious with all the plants in a specific species coming into flower at the same time.
Flowering in this species occurs over many months in a fertile clump, in one to several or all culms. After flowering, culms senesce, but sometimes clumps can regenerate from the rhizome[
Young shoots for food can be harvested 7 - 15 days after emergence. Whereas younger shoots have less protein and fat and more iron, they also have much less crude fibre per 100 g edible portion. Because the best texture in shoots is present just one week after emergence, that may also be the best time to harvest[
Culms of about a year old can be harvested for making handicrafts, but only culms of at least 3 years old should be taken for construction purposes[
It has been estimated that a clump should only be harvested 5 - 8 years after planting, and not more than 60% of all standing mature culms should be harvested from any clump per year[
The harvested culms apparently are more durable and resistant to insect and fungal attack if they have been immersed in water for about 60 days. In some cases in the Philippines, prior to use, culms are sun-dried (for 4 weeks or more) or kiln-dried (for about 9 days) and then subjected to curing with smoke or painted with slaked lime ("whitewashing""). Another method of traditional curing is to leave the branches and leaves on a harvested culm for some time, which is said to reduce the amount of moisture and starch in the culm via transpiration through the leaves[
Young shoots - cooked. Of good quality[
The juice of the stem, around 150ml, is taken to reduce body temperature[
The long, straight culms have a variety of traditional applications, being used in rough constructions; as framework; in the fishing industry, where they are used for making rafts, fish traps, outriggers and fish pens; as temporary water pipes; in fencing etc. They are also used in making modern furniture, are split for plaiting walls and are used in the handicraft industry[
]. One Philippine study indicated that the canes are suitable as raw material for kraft pulps from the standpoint of pulp strength, pulp yield and acceptable level of silica content[
Seed -not normally used[
The plant is propagated only vegetatively, usually by rhizome or culm cuttings. For culm cuttings it is recommended to take pieces of about 50cm in length, including a well-developed branching node, and to plant it horizontally at 10cm depth. Cuttings are planted first in a nursery or, as documented in the Philippines, directly in the field, at the onset of the rainy season. The recommended spacing for a plantation is 6 - 7 metres x 7 metres[
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