Ficus arpazusa, treated here as a synonym, is accepted as a valid species in the online 2012 Flora do Brasil. Should Ficus arpazusa be generally accepted as valid in the future, then the main source of information about it can be found in Brazilian Trees, Vol. 3[
Ficus arbutifolia Pers.
Ficus arpazusa Casar.
Ficus baccata (Liebm.) Miq.
Ficus cerasifolia Kunth & Bouché
Ficus cerasifolia Kunth & C.D.Bouché
Ficus ciliolosa Kunth & C.D.Bouché
Ficus complicata Kunth
Ficus consanguinea Kunth & Bouché
Ficus daphniphylla Miq.
Ficus elliptica (Herzog) Herter
Ficus erythrosticta (Miq.) Miq.
Ficus fadyeni Miq.
Ficus fasciculata S.Watson
Ficus faydeni Miq.
Ficus garcesii Dugand
Ficus gardeniifolia Miq.
Ficus gemina (Miq.) Miq.
Ficus grabhamii Britton ex Fawc. & Rendle
Ficus halliana Britton ex Fawc. & Rendle
Ficus immersa Warb. ex Glaz.
Ficus kanukuensis Standl.
Ficus lancifolia Hook. & Arn.
Ficus morantensis Britton ex Fawc. & Rendle
Ficus myrtifolia Link
Ficus ochroleuca Griseb.
Ficus padifolia Kunth
Ficus palmicida Pittier
Ficus periplocaefolia Kunth & Bouché
Ficus peruviana (Miq.) Rossberg
Ficus planicostata Kunth & C.D.Bouché
Ficus polypus Schiede ex Miq.
Ficus populnea planicostata (Kunth & C.D.Bouché) Warb.
Ficus prinoides Hassl.
Ficus radicans Casar.
Ficus rolandri (Liebm.) Miq.
Ficus sapida (Liebm.) Miq.
Ficus sonorae S.Watson
Ficus subtriplinervia Mart.
Ficus sulcipes (Miq.) Miq.
Ficus tapajozensis Standl.
Ficus tarapotina Warb.
Ficus trachelosyce Dugand
Ficus turbinata (Liebm.) Miq.
Pharmacosycea laurifolia Miq.
Pharmacosycea peruviana Miq.
Urostigma baccatum Liebm.
Urostigma cestrifolium major Miq.
Urostigma complicatum (Kunth) Liebm.
Urostigma erythrostictum Miq.
Urostigma geminum Miq.
Urostigma lancifolium Miq.
Urostigma padifolium (Kunth) Liebm.
Urostigma pertusum (L.f.) Miq.
Urostigma planicostatum Miq.
Urostigma populneum mexicanum Miq.
Urostigma rolandri Liebm.
Urostigma sapidum Liebm.
Urostigma schiedeanum Miq.
Urostigma subtriplinervium (Mart.) Miq.
Urostigma sulcipes Miq.
Urostigma turbinatum Liebm.
Young tree, already producing prop roots
Photograph by: Wuarimono
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0
Ficus pertusa is a semievergreen to evergreen tree with a wide, dense, pyramidal crown; It usually grows around 4 - 12 metres tall but there are records of plants up to 30 metres tall with a huge, wide crown and numerous aerial roots and trunks. The short, crooked bole can be 30 - 40cm in diameter[
]. The plant sometimes begins life as an epiphyte, growing in the branch of another tree; as it grows older it sends down aerial roots which, when they reach the ground quickly form roots and become much thicker and more vigorous. They supply nutrients to the fig, allowing it to grow faster than the host tree. Eventually the aerial roots encircle the host tree, preventing its main trunk from expanding, whilst at the same time the foliage smothers the foliage of the host. Eventually the host dies, leaving the fig to carry on growing without competition.
The tree is sometimes harvested from the wild for local use as a food, medicine and source of low quality wood. The fruit is sometimes sold in local markets[
S. America - Paraguay, Brazil, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, the Guyanas; C. America - Panama to northern Mexico; Caribbean - Trinidad.
Rainforests and seasonal semideciduous forests, usually in more open situations, favouring well-drained, rocky soils[
]. Wet, evergreen forest formations from sea level to 2,000 metres, but usually found between 900 - 1,600 metres[
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Prefers a sunny position in a well-drained soil[
Young plants have a moderate rate of growth[
Fig trees have a unique form of fertilization, each species relying on a single, highly specialized species of wasp that is itself totaly dependant upon that fig species in order to breed. The trees produce three types of flower; male, a long-styled female and a short-styled female flower, often called the gall flower. All three types of flower are contained within the structure we usually think of as the fruit.
The female fig wasp enters a fig and lays its eggs on the short styled female flowers while pollinating the long styled female flowers. Wingless male fig wasps emerge first, inseminate the emerging females and then bore exit tunnels out of the fig for the winged females. Females emerge, collect pollen from the male flowers and fly off in search of figs whose female flowers are receptive. In order to support a population of its pollinator, individuals of a Ficus spp. must flower asynchronously. A population must exceed a critical minimum size to ensure that at any time of the year at least some plants have overlap of emmission and reception of fig wasps. Without this temporal overlap the short-lived pollinator wasps will go locally extinct[
Fruit - raw[
]. A sweet flavour, they are much liked by children[
]. Pale yellow when ripe[
The latex is used as a vermifuge[
The latex is spread on the skin to relieve itching due probably to fungal infections[
A decoction of the root bark is used to treat fevers[
The creamy yellow to pale pinkish-brown becomes dark grey upon exposure due to stain. It is coarse-textured, straight-grained, light in weight but firm, easy to cut, not durable and very susceptible to termites. Of low quality, it is only used for purposes such as door fillings, troughs and boxes[
Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a partially shaded position in a nursery seedbed. The seed is very small and an easy way of obtaining it from the tree is to collect the fruits and place them in a plastic bag then leave them until the fruit is partially decomposed. Then mix the fruit with some water to make a suspension of seeds and pulp - this suspension can be sown directly onto the seedbed. A low germination rate can be expected, with the seed sprouting within 30 - 50 days[
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