Clausena melioides Hiern
Clausenopsis angolensis Engl.
Vepris angolensis Engl.
Fagaropsis angolensis is a deciduous tree with a spreading crown; it usually grows from 7 - 24 metres tall, but specimens up to 40 metres have been recorded. The usually straight and cylindrical bole can be free of branches for up to 18 metres, though it is often branched near the base; it is up to 100cm in diameter, occasionally to 200cm; sometimes with buttresses at the base. The pinkish grey bark is more or less rough, sometimes with corky outgrowths[
The tree is harvested from the wild for local use as a medicine and source of wood.
Although this species is widespread and not immediately endangered, it is uncommon in several regions within its distribution area, especially in southern Africa. It is among the top ten priority species that are to be considered for conservation in south-western Ethiopia. In the West Usambara Mountains of Tanzania it has been heavily exploited for its timber and is threatened at present[
East tropical Africa - Ethiopia, eastern DR Congo, Uganda, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, eastern Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe.
Dry evergreen forest, sometimes moist forest; rain-forest, especially on the edges; upland forest with Podocarpus, also extending into lowland Celtis-Aningeria altissima forest; at elevations from 1,000 - 2,600 metres[
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Trees have a moderately fast rate of growth[
Trees can be managed by coppicing[
Logs are susceptible to splitting in felling operations, sometimes over the full length of the bole. To avoid splitting, it has been suggested that the standing tree be ring-barked a year before felling[
In Uganda heavy predation of seedlings by rodents has been recorded[
A dioecious species, both male and female forms need to be grown if fruit and seed are required[
The stem bark is used in traditional medicine to treat malaria[
The root is chewed as an expectoran[
]t. The powdered root is taken in drinks or gruel to treat male sterility[
Several alkaloids and limonoids have been isolated from the stem bark, including the anti-malarial benzophenanthridine alkaloid nitidine[
Methanol and aqueous extracts of the stem bark have shown considerable in-vitro activity against both chloroquine-resistant and chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum strains[
Methanol extracts have shown significant toxicity in the brine shrimp test, but water extracts have shown only mild toxicity[
The compounds canthin-6-one and 5-methoxycanthin-6-one showed fungicidal activity[
The heartwood is yellowish grey to dark green or brown tinged with green or yellow, darkening on exposure; it is fairly distinctly demarcated from the up to 6cm wide band of pale yellow or greenish to greyish white sapwood. The grain is usually straight, occasionally wavy, texture moderately fine and even. Growth rings are distinct. The wood is lustrous. Due to variations in colour and grain, the wood sometimes has a beautiful figure on both radial and tangential sections and also on peeled veneer. The wood is moderately heavy; moderately durable to durable and moderately resistant to termite attack, but liable to Lyctus and marine borer attacks. Drying does not usually cause problems, with little deformation, except for end splitting in thick material. The rates of shrinkage are moderate. Boards 25mm thick air dry in 4 weeks in Tanzania, and boards 50mm thick in 3 months. The wood is often only moderately stable in service, splitting of fixed panels being common when the air humidity is low. Boards may split during conversion of the log, but the dry wood saws and works fairly easily with both hand and machine tools. It can be finished to a smooth surface and polishes well. The moulding, mortising and turning properties are all satisfactory. Pre-boring before nailing is necessary; the nail-holding power is good. The wood is used for flooring, furniture and panelling. It is also suitable for light construction, joinery, interior trim, vehicle bodies, sporting goods, toys, novelties, musical instruments, carving, turnery, veneer and plywood[
The wood is used for fuel and for making charcoal[
Seed - pre-treatment before sowing is not necessary. The germination rate of fresh seed is generally high, but seeds lose their viability rapidly, within 2 months.
Root suckers can also be used for propagation[
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