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Useful Tropical Plants

Dysoxylum excelsum

Blume

Meliaceae

+ Synonyms

Alliaria procera (Hiern) Kuntze

Azedarach nigra Noronha

Dysoxylum altissimum Merr.

Dysoxylum arnoldianum K.Schum.

Dysoxylum gobara (Buch.-Ham.) Merr.

Dysoxylum hasseltii (Miq.) Koord. & Valet.

Dysoxylum havilandii Ridl.

Dysoxylum huberti Harms

Dysoxylum macgregorii C.DC.

Dysoxylum microbotrys King

Dysoxylum motleyanum (C.DC.) Ridl.

Dysoxylum pallidum Merr.

Dysoxylum peerisiae Kosterm.

Dysoxylum procerum Hiern

Dysoxylum turbinatum King

Epicharis dubiosa Span. ex Miq.

Epicharis procera (Hiern) Pierre

Guarea acuminate Wall.

Guarea disyphonia Griff.

Guarea gobara [Aiken] Buch.-Ham.

Guarea oblonga Wall.

Guarea procera Wall.

Hartighsea excels (Blume) A.Juss.

Hartighsea gobara Wight & Arn.

Macrocheton excelsum (Blume) M.Roem.

Trichilia excelsa Spreng.

Common Name:

No Image.

General Information

Dysoxylum excelsum is an evergreen plant, ranging in size from a shrub to a fairly large tree up to 35 metres tall, with occasional specimens reaching a height of 47 metres[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. The bole is variable in shape with a diameter of up to 80cm (occasionally to 150cm), usually branchless for up to 20 metres, sometimes with buttresses up to 3 or even 5 metres high and 2.5 metres outwards, and sometimes fluted at the base[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
,
899
Title
Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak Vols 1 - 6
Publication
 
Author
Soepadmo E.; Saw L.G.; Chung R.C.K. (Editors)
Publisher
Forest Research Institute Malaysia; Kuala Lumpur.
Year
2002
ISBN
983-2181-27-5
Description
A flora of the woody plants of Sabah and Sarawak on the island of Borneo, often giving details of plant uses.
].
The tree is exploited in the wild for its valuable timber, which is traded internationally. The tree also supplies food and medicines for the local people.

Known Hazards

The bark shows piscicidal and insecticidal properties and is sometimes poisonous to humans[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].

Botanical References

266
Title
Flora of China
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/
Publisher
Missouri Botanical Garden Press; St. Louis.
Year
1994
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent, comprehensive resource in 25 volumes. In addition to the botanical information the flora also gives basic information on habitat and some uses. An on-line version is also available.
,
451
Title
Flora Malesiana Series 1
Publication
 
Author
Various
Website
http://www.archive.org
Publisher
Nationaal Herbarium Nederiand, Universiteit Leiden branch
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A massive treatment of the plants of the Malaysian Archipelago. Much of it has been made available to download from the Internet

Range

E. Asia - China, Indian subcontinent, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Laos, Philippines, New Guinea, Solomon Islands.

Habitat

In undisturbed mixed dipterocarp to sub-montane forests at elevations up to 1,100 metres[
359
Title
Trees of Sungai Wain
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.nationaalherbarium.nl/Sungaiwain/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent site with factsheets on almost 1,000 species of forest trees growing at Sungai Wain in Indonesia. Each factsheet has good quality pictures plus basic information on the ecology and uses of the plants.
]. On alluvial sites near or along rivers and streams. In secondary forests usually present as a pre-disturbance remnant[
359
Title
Trees of Sungai Wain
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.nationaalherbarium.nl/Sungaiwain/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent site with factsheets on almost 1,000 species of forest trees growing at Sungai Wain in Indonesia. Each factsheet has good quality pictures plus basic information on the ecology and uses of the plants.
].

Properties

Edibility Rating *
Medicinal Rating *
Other Uses Rating *  *  *
HabitEvergreen Tree
Height20.00 m
PollinatorsInsects
Self-fertileNo
Cultivation StatusWild

Cultivation Details

A plant of low to moderate elevations in the tropics. Succeeding from sea level up to around 1,500 metres[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
Succeeds in clayey to sandy soils[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
In natural forest in West Java, at an altitude of 1,100 - 1,500 metres, Dysoxylum species were among the few major commercial species[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. Their natural regeneration, however, was very erratic. The few seedlings which did come up, were found in open areas as well as under shade and had a height increment of only about 25cm in three years[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
Dysoxylum species are not resistant to fire and seedlings die in 7 - 11 days when exposed to waterlogged conditions[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
Locally in Papua New Guinea Dysoxylum species may constitute 4% of the total exploitable timber volume of trees over 50 cm diameter[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
A dioecious species, both male and female forms need to be grown if fruit and seed are required[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. The plant occasionally also has some bisexual flowers[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].

Edible Uses

The fruits are reported to be edible[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].

Young leaves of the same species smell of onions and have been cooked with fish[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. The leaves of this species never smell of onions, leaves that do usually come from Dysoxylum alliaceum[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].

Medicinal

Dysoxylum species are well-known in the Philippines for their medicinal properties; an infusion of the bark is widely used as an emetic[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].

Agroforestry Uses:

The tree may be useful for reforestation purposes[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].

Other Uses

The bark shows insecticidal properties[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].

The heartwood is brownish-red to bright red; it is clearly demarcated from the fawnish-white sapwood. The wood is hard[
146
Title
A Manual of Indian Timbers.
Publication
 
Author
Gamble. J. S.
Publisher
Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh
Year
1972
ISBN
-
Description
First written in the 19th century, but still a classic, giving a lot of information on the uses and habitats of Indian trees. Not for the casual reader.
,
451
Title
Flora Malesiana Series 1
Publication
 
Author
Various
Website
http://www.archive.org
Publisher
Nationaal Herbarium Nederiand, Universiteit Leiden branch
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A massive treatment of the plants of the Malaysian Archipelago. Much of it has been made available to download from the Internet
]. The wood is little esteemed, but is used for general construction[
451
Title
Flora Malesiana Series 1
Publication
 
Author
Various
Website
http://www.archive.org
Publisher
Nationaal Herbarium Nederiand, Universiteit Leiden branch
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A massive treatment of the plants of the Malaysian Archipelago. Much of it has been made available to download from the Internet
]. A handsome wood, well deserving of more extensive notice[
146
Title
A Manual of Indian Timbers.
Publication
 
Author
Gamble. J. S.
Publisher
Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh
Year
1972
ISBN
-
Description
First written in the 19th century, but still a classic, giving a lot of information on the uses and habitats of Indian trees. Not for the casual reader.
]. It is used for a wide variety of products such as general construction, boat construction, heavy decking, flooring, posts, foundation piles, doors, window frames and sills, mouldings, interior finish, decorative wall panelling, high grade furniture, cabinet work, coffins, vats, pallets, cart wheels, carving, turnery, tool handles, billiard cue butts, and match splints and matchboxes[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. It is also used for the production of sliced veneer, plywood and block board, and is suitable for the production of pulp[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].

We have no more specific information on the wood of this species, but it is one of a group of species that are the source of a commercial timber known in the trade as 'jarum-jarum'. The general description of jarum-jarum is as follows:-
The heartwood is orange-red to brick red when fresh,darkening on exposure; it is clearly demarcated from the yellow sapwood. The texture is moderately coarse but uneven due to the abundant of parenchyma; the grain is straight, interlocked, wavy or irregular; there is a watersilk marking on flat-sawn surfaces due to the parenchyma bands. The wood is moderately hard to hard. It is used for purposes such as flooring, furniture, wall panelling, solid door construction, veneer and plywood[
935
Title
Identification and utilization of lesser-known commercial timbers in Peninsular Malaysia 7
Publication
Timber Technology Bulletin No. 41
Author
Lim S.C.; Gan K.S.
Website
https://info.frim.gov.my/infocenter/booksonline/ttb/TTBno41.pdf
Publisher
Forest Research Institute Malaysia
Year
2006
ISBN
139-258
Description
Part of an excellent series of publications, this one giving a brief guide to four groups of lesser known commercial timbers from southeast Asia. It can be downloaded in PDF format from the Internet.
].

Propagation

Seed - when sown fresh with the pulp still adhering, the seeds have a germination rate of 80% in 1 - 4 months[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
Seeds sown without the pulp generally germinate faster than those sown with pulp.
Cite as: Tropical Plants Database, Ken Fern. tropical.theferns.info. 2021-07-28. <tropical.theferns.info/viewtropical.php?id=Dysoxylum+excelsum>

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