Dimorphandra wilsonii is an evergreen tree with a dense, wide crown; it can grow 12 - 15 metres tall. The bole can be 30 - 60cm in diameter[
The plant is a rich source of rutin, but is not exploited because of its rarity. The wood is sometimes used locally to make furniture. The tree can be used as a pioneer when restoring native woodland.
This species is restricted to a very small area in eastern Brazil and, in 2011, there were only 10 mature plants and 6 smaller ones known to exist. In addition, its habitat is very seriously threatened by human activity as the forest is cleared mainly for charcoal and to make pasture for cattle. The plant is classified as 'Critically Endangered' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species(2011)[
The seeds can be harmful to pregnant cattle[
S. America - eastern Brazil.
Savannah and woodland savannah[
|Conservation Status||Critically Endangered
|Other Uses Rating||
Grows best in a sunny position[
Young plants have a moderate rate of growth, able to reach a height of around 1.5 metres within 2 years from seed[
This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby[
The fruits contain the flavonoid 'rutin'. Rutin is widely used to produce medicines for human circulatory diseases and is usually extracted industrially in Brazil from the related species Dimorphandra mollis and Dimorphandra gardneriana. This species also has good exploitation potential but was never used because of its small population size and because the species was so poorly known[
The plant fixes atmospheric nitrogen, is fairly fast-growing and succeeds in full sun, it can be used as a pioneer species when restoring native woodland[
The wood is coarse-textured, irregular-grained, moderately heavy with a moderate resistance to rot. It is used locally to make furniture, boxes, boards, panelling etc[
Seed - it has a hard seedcoat and benefits from scarification before sowing in order to speed up and improve germination. This can usually be done by pouring a small amount of nearly boiling water on the seeds (being careful not to cook them!) and then soaking them for 12 - 24 hours in warm water. By this time they should have imbibed moisture and swollen - if they have not, then carefully make a nick in the seedcoat (being careful not to damage the embryo) and soak for a further 12 hours before sowing. Sow the treated seed in a partially shaded position in a nursery seedbed. A germination rate of around 50% can usually be expected when the seed has been treated, with the seed sprouting within 10 - 20 days[
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