Cocculus leaeba (Delile) DC.
Cocculus pendulus is a dioecious, much-branched climbing or scandent shrub[
The plant is used in traditional medicine, being harvested from the wild.
Northern Tropical Africa through Arabia, east to India.
Semi-desert scrub vegetation or deciduous bushland, sometimes in shady localities along streams, climbing on trees such as Acacia and Balanites spp., up to 1,900 metres[
]. Found on sandy and gravelly soils, sometimes colonizes dry fallow land[
A plant of the drier tropics and subtropics.
Plants can grow in a variety of habitats[
The flowers are added to food[
The fruits are edible and Arabs make an intoxicating drink from them[
]. The fruit is composed of 1 - 3 obovoid, flattened drupes, each drupe 4 - 7 mm × 4 - 5 mm, dark red, single-seeded[
Various parts of the plant, but especially the root, are used in traditional medicine throughout the range of this plant[
], The treatment of fevers, including intermittent fever, is the most common use, but a range of other conditions are also treated[
Little investigation has been made of the chemical components of the root, though the stems and leaves are known to contain a great variety of alkaloids[
]. Of the alkaloids, cocsulinin has been shown to have anticancer properties, whilst kurramine derivatives have shown anticholesterinase activity in vitro[
]. The alkaloids cocsoline, penduline, tetradine and isotrilobine have all shown high antiplasmodial activity in vitro[
]. In a comparison of 20 plant species from India, however, this species was not selected as one of the promising species with antimalarial properties for further research[
High alkaloid-producing cell lines have been established, which produce actineoplastic agents299]
The main conditions treated by this herb are fevers and intermittent fevers. The root is the plant part most commonly employed, but the leaves and stem bark are also used[
A decoction of the roots, together with those of Tinospora bakis, is used to prepare a stimulating tonic[
]. Stem bark and root bark decoctions are used against intestinal parasites and gonorrhoea[
]. The root has a great reputation in Senegal against biliousness and menstrual problems and as a diuretic[
]. It is also part of medicines against jaundice, yellow fever, leprosy, syphilis, and of an aphrodisiac[
An infusion of the plant is used to assist in removing thorns from the feet[
In Kenya a wood infusion is taken as an emetic[
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