Citrus aurantium junos Makino
Common Name: Yuzu
Yuzu is an evergreen shrub or small tree growing 2 - 7 metres tall[
The edible fruit is relatively rare, and highly prized in the Orient, where the plant has been known and cultivated in China for 2,000 years or more. It is also grown in other areas, particularly Japan and Korea[
Only known in cultivation.
Not known in a truly wild situation, though it sometimes naturalises[
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Three main climates are suitable for commercial citrus production - tropical climates, subtropical with winter rain such as in the Mediterranean and semitropical with summer rainfall as found in Florida and southern Brazil[
]. The optimal temperatures for citrus cultivation range between 25 - 30°c, with the coldest month having an average minimum of at least 15°c[
]. Growth generally ceases below 13°c and above 38°c[
]. If there are dry periods of more than three months, then irrigation will be necessary[
]. This species is one of the hardiest in the genus, aid to be able to withstand temperatures down to -12°c[
Prefers a deep, well-drained but moisture-retentive loamy soil in full sun[
]. Prefers a pH in the range 5 - 6[
]. Plants cannot withstand long dry periods[
This species is possibly a hybrid involving C. Cavaleriei and C. Reticulata[
The fruits have been used as a substitute of limon and lime[
]. They have a highly fragrant rind and flesh with an acid and tart flavour[
]. The grated or slivered rind and juice are used for their distinctive, refreshing fragrance and flavour in Japanese-style dishes[
The fruit juice is processed into a distinctive, citrus-flavoured vinegar[
]. The fruit is also utilized as a source of citric acid[
Citrus species contain a wide range of active ingredients and research is still underway in finding uses for them. They are rich in vitamin C, flavonoids, acids and volatile oils. They also contain coumarins such as bergapten which sensitizes the skin to sunlight. Bergapten is sometimes added to tanning preparations since it promotes pigmentation in the skin, though it can cause dermatitis or allergic responses in some people[
]. Some of the plants more recent applications are as sources of anti-oxidants and chemical exfoliants in specialized cosmetics[
Essential oils extracted from the plant are used in perfumes, lotions, and soaps[
This species is an important cold-resistant rootstock for other Citrus species[
Seed-grown plants are normally quite similar to their parent, but there is always a chance of hybridisation with atypical seedlings being produced[
]. The seed is best sown in containers as soon as it is ripe, after thoroughly rinsing it[
]. Sow stored seed in containers as soon as possible]. Germination usually takes place within 2 - 3 weeks at 13°c. Seedlings are liable to damp off so they must be watered with care and kept well ventilated. The seed is usually polyembrionic, two or more seedlings arise from each seed and they are genetically identical to the parent but they do not usually carry any virus that might be present in the parent plant[
]. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on until they are 10cm or more tall before planting out into their permanent positions.
Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. This species grows easily from cuttings[
Layering in October.
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