Achillea bandana Buch.-Ham.
Achillea berdana Buch.-Ham. ex DC.
Arctotis elegans Thunb.
Bidens bardanna Wall.
Bidens marginata DC.
Chrysanthemum × sabinii Lindl.
Chrysanthemum japonicola Makino
Chrysanthemum japonicum Thunb.
Chrysanthemum koraiense Nakai
Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium acutum (Uyeki) C.Y.Li
Chrysanthemum littorale Maekawa
Chrysanthemum lushanense Kitam.
Chrysanthemum nankingense Hand.-Mazz.
Chrysanthemum procumbens Lour.
Chrysanthemum purpureum Pers.
Chrysanthemum tripartitum Sweet
Chrysanthemum yamazutanum Kitam.
Collaea procumbens (Rich.) Spreng.
Dendranthema coreanum littorale (Maekawa) Lauener
Dendranthema indicum (L.) Des Moul.
Dendranthema lavandulifolium aromaticum (Q.H.Liu & S.F.Zhang) S.J.Zhou & D.K.Zang
Dendranthema littorale (Maekawa) Tzvelev
Dendranthema nankingense (Hand.-Mazz.) X.D.Cui
Matricaria indica (L.) Desr.
Matricaria procumbens Poir.
Pyrethrum indicum (L.) Cass.
Pyrethrum matricarioides Paxton ex E.Vilm.
Pyrethrum procumbens Kostel.
Pyrethrum sinense japonicum Maxim.
Tanacetum indicum (L.) Sch.Bip.
Common Name: Chrysanthemum
Close-up of the flower
Photograph by: Joydeep
Chrysanthemum indicum is an erect, aromatic, perennial plant producing a clump of stems 25 - 100cm tall from procumbent rhizomes[
The plant is harvested from the wild for local use as a food and medicine. It is sometimes cultivated for medicinal use[
]. Several varieties are sometimes recognized within Chrysanthemum indicum, one of which is Chrysanthemum indicum var. edule (Kitam.) Kitam. - this form is cultivated as a vegetable in China[
]. The plant is also grown as an ornamental.
E. Asia - Nepal, Bhutan, Eastern and central China, Central and Southern Japan, Korea, Vietnam, Laos
Found wild in most habitats[
]. Grasslands on mountain slopes, thickets, wet places by rivers, fields, roadsides, saline places by seashores, under shrubs; at elevations from 100 - 2,900 metres[
|Cultivation Status||Cultivated, Ornamental, Wild
Chrysanthemum indicum is a plant of the temperate zone and a parent of the cultivated Chrysanthemums. Although temperate in origin, it can be grown successfully in tropical areas and is often cultivated in southeast Asia[
]. Plants can tolerate temperatures down to about -10°c[
Succeeds in most well-drained fertile soils in a sunny position[
This species is one of the main parents of the florists’ chrysanthemum, Chrysanthemum morifolium[
When bruised, the foliage has a pungent refreshing fragrance that is somewhat lemon-like and reminiscent of chamomile[
The flower heads are pickled in vinegar[
Young leaves - cooked[
An aromatic tea is made from the leaves[
]. No more details are given but it is very small and would be rather fiddly to use.
The whole plant is antiphlogistic, blood tonic, depurative, febrifuge and vulnerary[
]. It is used for dissipating heat, detoxifying, and dissipating blood stasis[
]. It is used in China to treat eye ailments[
]. In conjunction with black pepper it is used in the treatment of gonorrhoea[
The leaves are depurative[
]. They are used in China in the treatment of migraine[
The flowers are antibacterial, aperient, bitter, hypotensive, stomachic and vasodilator[
]. A decoction is used in the treatment of conditions such as photopsia, vertigo, fever, headache, ophthalmia, dacryolithiasis,
xerophthalmia, amblyopia and hypertension They have a rejuvenating effect when used over a long period of time[
The flowers are used externally, as a poultice and also as a wash, in the treatment of furuncle, scrofula, deep-rooted boils, inflammation of the throat, eyes and cervix, eczema, itchiness of the skin[
The flowers contain the glycoside chrysanthemin that yields glucose and cyanidin on hydrolysis, together with stachydrine and an essential oil[
The flowers have been shown to have an antibacterial action, inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus, E. Coli, Streptococcus, C. Diphtheriae, Bacillus dysenteriae[
An essential oil obtained from the plant contains chrysanthenone, this is active on the brain centre affected by Parkinson's disease[
The seed contains about 16% of a semi-drying oil, but no information is given as to its uses[
]. The seed is rather small, commercial extraction is probably not viable[
Seed - sow in a container and only just cover the seed. It usually germinates in 10 - 18 days at 15°c but if it does not germinate within 4 weeks then try chilling the seed for 3 weeks in the salad compartment of a fridge[
]. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out when large enough.
Division. Larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on until they are rooting well.