Research has shown that the range of this species is restricted to the east coast of India and Bangladesh, southwestern Thailand and western part of the Malay Peninsula. The middle and southern part of its range is now considered to be Ceriops zippeliana (Sheue et al. 2009)[
Bruguiera decandra Griff.
Ceriops candolleana Náves
Ceriops decandra (Griff.) Ding Hou
Ceriops roxburghiana Arn.
Rhizophora decandra Roxb.
Ceriops decandra is a straight, columnar tree with a relatively narrow crown; it usually grows up to 15 metres tall, but some specimens up to 35 metres have been recorded. The bole is most commonly in the range 15 - 20cm in diameter, though some can reach 35cm; it has short basal buttresses which appear to develop from the fusion of clusters of stilt roots. Small pneumatophores (breathing roots) develop in wet sites[
The tree is commonly harvested from the wild as a source of wood and other materials for local use. In the past the bark was an important source of high quality tannin, and although its use for this purpose has waned in recent years, it is still used locally[
This species is rare with a restricted distribution[
]. Its large-scale exploitation for posts, poles, firewood and charcoal has been widespread, and still occurs in places[
]. It is also threatened by habitat loss from coastal development throughout its range. Although the exact population reduction is unknown, it is estimated to be between 12 - 26% over the period 1980 - 2000. The plant is currently classified as 'Near Threatened' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species(2013), though may well qualify for a 'Threatened' category[
E. Asia - coastal areas of eastern India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand and Malaysia.
Edges of mangrove swamps[
]. Found in the intermediate estuarine zone in mid to high intertidal regions[
]. It is most common in sites that are flooded by virtually all high tides[
|Conservation Status||Near Threatened
|Other Uses Rating||
A plant mainly of high rainfall areas in the tropics[
The plant can grow in saline soils, it has a maximum tolerance of salinity at 67ppt and a salinity of optimal growth at15 ppt[
A slow-growing species, though it can be tolerant of extreme environmental conditions[
Trees tend to flower periodically and synchronously over wide areas, but seasonally under seasonal climates[
Fruiting is often prolific. Seeds germinate and start to develop whilst still on the tree, with individual trees producing several thousands of seedlings at the same time. The seedlings take up to 12 months to develop, with shorter times in wet equatorial regions, and then fall. Subsequent development involves a seedling being stranded and lodged in the mud, followed by the rapid production of adventitious roots which serve to anchor it. Most seedlings are slender and small and cannot survive long periods while floating in the water, and consequently are not as successfully dispersed over long distances as those of other mangrove Rhizophoraceae. However, once 'planted' in the shade of other trees their rate of establishment is very high[
The bark is astringent. A decoction is used to treat haemorrhages[
The bark yields around 25 - 37% of a high quality tannin[
]. Both bark and leaves are used for tanning in South-East Asia and India[
]. The bark of older trees has higher contents of tannin[
The sap of the bark yields a black dye used in the 'batik' industry[
The wood is a pale whitish-yellow when freshly cut, turning orange-brown on exposure to air. It is usually somewhat less heavy than the wood of the related Ceriops tagal, and is moderately resistant to decay, with a life in contact with the ground of about 2 years[
]. The branches are used for tool handles, and bent ones for boat ribs. Some wood of this species has been chipped for pulp[
The wood is used for fuel[
]. When dry, the wood burns with a hotter flame than that of most other mangrove species[
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