Photograph by: M. Coode
Image credit to Palmweb
Photograph by: M. Coode
Image credit to Palmweb
Botanical specimens of the plant
Photograph by: O. Beccari; Annals of the Royal Botanic Garden, Calcutta, vol. 11: t. 2 (1906)
Calamus mindorensis is a spiny, evergreen, climbing palm producing a single, rather robust and high climbing, unbranched stem around 15 - 25mm in diameter with internodes around 32cm long[
One of the more popular large-diameter rattan palms in the Philippines, it is commonly harvested from the wild for both local use and trade. The stems are used in basketry, furniture making etc[
Southeast Asia - Indonesia (Sulawesi), Philippines
Mostly found in the interior of dense primary forests at elevations from 200 - 500 metres, though occasionally found at the edges of primary forest or in secondary forest[
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Most species in this genus are more or less vigorous climbing plants in rainforests. Leaves of young plants are normally damaged if exposed to too much light, though leaves of older plants will usually tolerate full sun. In general, plants are likely to grow best with their roots in the shade but with enough gap in the canopy to encourage their stems to grow up towards the light. They are also likely to grow best in a humus-rich soil[
]. Many of the species require fairly moist conditions for good growth, in fact several of them grow in wet soils or in areas with seasonal inundation - where we have the information it will be included under the plant’s habitat.
Overhead shade should be manipulated at about 6-monthly intervals for the first 2 - 3 years of a young plant’s life to ensure they receive sufficient light to grow vigorously. About 40 - 50% light penetration is generally considered to be ideal for promoting stem growth.
Little care is needed once the seedlings are established. It is important, however, to weed the area surrounding the seedlings occasionally until the plants are more than 2 metres tall.
Although no detailed study has been done on the growth and development of this species, it is estimated that it would take 8 - 10 years from planting seedlings before the plants reached harvestable size[
As in other large diameter rattans the stem is first cut near the base and then pulled down from the canopy. This may require the combined strength of 2 - 3 persons. The stem is then cleaned of its thorny leaf-sheaths by means of a knife. The bare stem is then cut into lengths of 4 metres or longer and tied in bundles for transport to the market[
A dioecious species, both male and female forms need to be grown if fruit and seed are required.
Although we have no specific information for this species, many members of this genus have potentially edible young shoots. Indeed, in Laos the shoots are considered to be a delicacy and over half the species growing there are said to be cooked and eaten as a vegetable. The top 100cm of the plant is used. If the leaf sheaths are left in place until just before cooking then the shoot will remain fresh for up to one week[
The unsplit stems are around 15 - 25mm in diameter and are used mainly for making furniture[
]. When split, they are made into baskets, cordage or used as tying material to thatch houses[310 1018].
The long and slender stems of Calamus species are put to various uses according to their size, length, flexibility, elasticity and toughness. The most slender canes are employed entire for binding purposes, and in making chairs, blinds, mats, wicker or basketwork, fishing implements, etc. Twisted together, they make very strong cables. The largest and more resistent canes are used entire as cables, the framework of wicker chairs etc. Usually, however, for many purposes the stems are split throughout their length into 2 - 4 or more strips from which the inner soft brittle and spongy portion is removed by means of a knife or same other instrument, so as to leave the external portion, which is hard, tough, flexible, elastic and has its outer surface very clean and smooth as if it had been varnished[
Strips vary in width according to the use to which they are to be put. Those for delicate work, such as the network of furniture, small bags, hats, etc, are from 1 - 3mm wide; those employed as lashings in native housebuilding or in fastening the removable head of the Malay axe to its handle are from 5-6 mm wide[
Collecting and preparing the stems is very simple. The stem is cut near the ground and detached from the trees by taking a strong hold of its base and thus pulling down the entire plant with its leaves. The most recent growth at the top of the plant is removed and then, handling it from the upper end, the stem is forcibly drawn in the opposite direction between two pieces of wood, thus removing the spiny coverings. It is then cut into lengths of about 5 metres, each piece is bent into two equal parts and the stems are fastened into bundles ready for market. The most valued stems are not thicker than a man's little finger and have a fine polished straw-yellow glassy surface[
Seed - it has a fairly short viability and is best sown as soon as it is ripe.
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