Balsamea fraxinoides Hiern
Commiphora fraxinoides (Hiern) K.Schum.
Zanha golungensis is usually a deciduous tree with a heavily-branched, dense crown growing up to 24 metres tall with exceptional specimens to 35 metres. Occasionally, it is no more than a shrub 2 - 3 metres tall[
]. The bole is irregular[
The tree is harvested from the wild as a local source of food, medicines, soap and wood.
The fruits can cause severe diarrhoea if eaten in large quantities[
The fruits, and other parts of the plant, contain saponins[
]. Although poisonous, saponins are poorly absorbed by the human body and so most pass through without harm. Saponins are quite bitter and can be found in many common foods such as some beans. They can be removed by carefully leaching in running water. Thorough cooking, and perhaps changing the cooking water once, will also normally remove most of them. However, it is not advisable to eat large quantities of food that contain saponins. Saponins are much more toxic to some creatures, such as fish, and hunting tribes have traditionally put large quantities of them in streams, lakes etc in order to stupefy or kill the fish[
Although used medicinally, fatalities following ingestion of an infusion of the pounded root are known[
Tropical Africa - Senegal to Ethiopia and Kenya, south to Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Mozambique.
Deciduous woodland, often with Combretum, Brachystegia; (semi-)evergreen lowland forest; transitional rain-forest; forest gallery; mushitu; fringing forest, riparian forest in savannah (mainly so in W Africa); at elevations from 300 - 1,700 metres[
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A dioecious species, both male and female forms need to be grown if fruit and seed are required[
Fruit - raw[
]. The fruit is peeled, the seed discarded, and the sweet fleshy yellow pulp eaten in small quantities[
]. The fruits are mostly eaten by children and herdsmen and are believed to cause severe diarrhoea if eaten in large quantities[
]. The yellow-orange, cylindrical fruit is up to 20mm long[
The bark is dried, pounded to a powder and then used as a snuff to treat colds, fevers, headaches and convulsions[
A decoction of the roots is used as a remedy for colds, convulsions, impotence, intestinal worms, stomach-ache, constipation, hernia, mental illness, dysentery, fungal infection and for facilitating childbirth[
The stem and root bark contain saponin and are used as a substitute for soap[
The fruits contain about 10.5% saponins[
]. They are boiled then used as a soap[
The woody stems are used for cleaning the teeth[
The bark is used for chew sticks[
The wood is hard and heavy[
, 398. It carves easily into small articles[
]. It is used for furniture, construction, building poles, pestles, grain mortars, tool handles, bedsteads and spoons[
The wood is used for fuel and for making charcoal[
Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe[
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