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Useful Tropical Plants

Triticum turgidum durum

(Desf.) Husn.

Poaceae

+ Synonyms

Gigachilon polonicum durum (Desf.) Á.Löve

Triticum accessorium Flaksb.

Triticum aestivum durum (Desf.) Fiori

Triticum alatum Peterm.

Triticum algeriense Desf. ex Mert. & W.D.J.Koch

Triticum bauhinii Lag.

Triticum brachystachyum Lag. ex Schult. & Schult.f.

Triticum candissimum Bayle-Bar.

Triticum caucasicum Flaksb.

Triticum cevallos Lag.

Triticum cochleare Lag.

Triticum densiusculum Flaksb.

Triticum durum Desf.

Triticum fastuosum Lag.

Triticum hordeiforme Host

Triticum laxiusculum Flaksb.

Triticum longisemineum Flaksb.

Triticum maurorum Sennen

Triticum molle Roem. & Schult.

Triticum orientale Flaksb.

Triticum platystachyum Lag.

Triticum pruinosum Hornem.

Triticum pyramidale Percival

Triticum rarum Flaksb.

Triticum rimpaui Mackey

Triticum sativum durum (Desf.) K.Richt.

Triticum siculum Roem. & Schult.

Triticum tanaiticum Flaksb.

Triticum tiflisiense Flaksb.

Triticum tomentosum Bayle-Bar.

Triticum transcaucasicum Flaksb.

Triticum trevisium Desv.

Triticum villosum Host

Triticum vulgare bauhinii (Lag.) Alef.

Triticum vulgare durum (Desf.) Alef.

Triticum vulgare erion Alef.

Triticum vulgare hordeiforme (Host) Alef.

Triticum vulgare italicum Alef.

Triticum vulgare leptura Alef.

Triticum vulgare leucomelan Alef.

Triticum vulgare leucura Alef.

Triticum vulgare melanpus Alef.

Triticum vulgare provinciale Alef.

Common Name: Durum Wheat

Triticum turgidum durum
Ripe seedheads
Photograph by: Ximénex
Public domain
Triticum turgidum durum Triticum turgidum durum

General Information

Durum wheat is an annual, often strongly tufted grass that can grow up to 170cm tall[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
This species of wheat produces a hard, gluten-rich seed that is particularly valued for making various pasta products such as macaroni, spaghetti and noodles. It arose in cultivation from emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum), perhaps around 6,000 BC and is now grown in many countris of the world from the temperate zone to the tropics, but most especially in the Mediterranean regions of Africa and Europe and in the Middle east.

Known Hazards

None known

Botanical References

50
Title
Flora Europaea
Publication
 
Author
?
Publisher
Cambridge University Press
Year
1964
ISBN
-
Description
An immense work in 6 volumes (including the index). The standard reference flora for Europe, it is very terse though and with very little extra information. Not for the casual reader.
,
266
Title
Flora of China
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/
Publisher
Missouri Botanical Garden Press; St. Louis.
Year
1994
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent, comprehensive resource in 25 volumes. In addition to the botanical information the flora also gives basic information on habitat and some uses. An on-line version is also available.

Range

Original habitat is obscure.

Habitat

Developed through cultivation, it is not known in a truly wild location.

Properties

Edibility Rating *  *  *  *
Other Uses Rating *  *
HabitAnnual
Height1.00 m
PollinatorsWind

Cultivation Details

Durum wheat probably arose in the Middle East but is now cultivated from the temperate to the tropical zone. In the tropics it is generally grown at higher elevations from xxx - xxx metres, or at lower elevations during the cool season. It grows best in areas where annual daytime temperatures are within the range 17 - 25°c, but can tolerate 6 - 30°c[
418
Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.
]. It prefers a mean annual rainfall in the range 500 - 700mm, but tolerates 400 - 800mm[
418
Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.
].
An easily grown plant, it succeeds in most well-drained, fertile soils in a sunny position. Prefers a pH in the range 6 - 7, tolerating 5.5 - 8.5[
418
Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.
]. Established plants are drought resistant[
171
Title
Economic Botany.
Publication
 
Author
Hill. A. F.
Publisher
The Maple Press
Year
1952
ISBN
-
Description
Not very comprehensive, but it is quite readable and goes into some detail about the plants it does cover.
].
Progress in improving yields of durum wheat has generally been slower than that in bread wheat. However, durum wheat grain yields of 5 - 6 tonnes per hectare can be obtained with irrigation, the use of improved cultivars and better production practices[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
There are some named varieties[
46
Title
Dictionary of Economic Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Uphof. J. C. Th.
Publisher
Weinheim
Year
1959
ISBN
-
Description
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
,
50
Title
Flora Europaea
Publication
 
Author
?
Publisher
Cambridge University Press
Year
1964
ISBN
-
Description
An immense work in 6 volumes (including the index). The standard reference flora for Europe, it is very terse though and with very little extra information. Not for the casual reader.
].
A tetraploid species[
142
Title
Plants Consumed by Man.
Publication
 
Author
Brouk. B.
Publisher
Academic Press
Year
1975
ISBN
0-12-136450-x
Description
Readable but not very comprehensive.
].

Edible Uses

Seed - cooked[
46
Title
Dictionary of Economic Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Uphof. J. C. Th.
Publisher
Weinheim
Year
1959
ISBN
-
Description
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
,
57
Title
Plants for Man.
Publication
 
Author
Schery. R. W.
Publisher
 
Year
 
ISBN
 
Description
Fairly readable but not very comprehensive. Deals with plants from around the world.
,
61
Title
A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man.
Publication
 
Author
Usher. G.
Publisher
Constable
Year
1974
ISBN
0094579202
Description
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.
,
105
Title
Tanaka's Cyclopedia of Edible Plants of the World.
Publication
 
Author
Tanaka. T. & Nakao S.
Publisher
Keigaku Publishing; Tokyo
Year
1976
ISBN
-
Description
The most comprehensive list of edible plants I've come across. Only the briefest entry for each species, though, and some of the entries are more than a little dubious. Not for the casual reader.
]. The hard, transparent seed is especially rich in gluten. It is most commonly ground into a coarse flour (semolina) and used for making a range of pastas (spaghetti, noodles, lasagne etc), couscous, unleavened bread etc[
183
Title
Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications
Year
1990
ISBN
0-9628087-0-9
Description
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
,
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
]. The grain is also cooked whole or cracked in a range of dished[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
Durum wheat is not suitable for making cakes and leavened bread because of its high gluten content and dough strength[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
The seed is used in making various alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].

Medicinal

None known

Other Uses

The straw has many uses, as a biomass for fuel etc, for thatching, as a mulch in the garden etc[
141
Title
Alternative Enterprises for Agriculture in the UK.
Publication
 
Author
Carruthers. S. P. (Editor)
Publisher
Centre for Agricultural Strategy, Univ. of Reading
Year
1986
ISBN
0704909820
Description
Some suggested alternative commercial crops for Britain. Readable. Produced by a University study group.
].
A fibre obtained from the stems is used for making paper[
189
Title
Plant Fibres for Papermaking.
Publication
 
Author
Bell. L. A.
Publisher
Liliaceae Press
Year
1988
ISBN
-
Description
A good practical section on how to make paper on a small scale plus details of about 75 species (quite a few of them tropical) that can be used.
]. The stems are harvested in late summer after the seed has been harvested, they are cut into usable pieces and soaked in clear water for 24 hours. They are then cooked for 2 hours in lye or soda ash and then beaten in a ball mill for 1½ hours in a ball mill. The fibres make a green-tan paper[
189
Title
Plant Fibres for Papermaking.
Publication
 
Author
Bell. L. A.
Publisher
Liliaceae Press
Year
1988
ISBN
-
Description
A good practical section on how to make paper on a small scale plus details of about 75 species (quite a few of them tropical) that can be used.
].

The starch from the seed is used for laundering, sizing textiles etc[
46
Title
Dictionary of Economic Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Uphof. J. C. Th.
Publisher
Weinheim
Year
1959
ISBN
-
Description
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
,
61
Title
A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man.
Publication
 
Author
Usher. G.
Publisher
Constable
Year
1974
ISBN
0094579202
Description
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.
]. It can also be converted to alcohol for use as a fuel.

Propagation

Seed - sow in situ. Germination occurs within a few days at temperatures of 4 - 37°c, the optimum being 12 - 25°c[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
Cite as: Tropical Plants Database, Ken Fern. tropical.theferns.info. 2018-12-10. <tropical.theferns.info/viewtropical.php?id=Triticum+turgidum+durum>

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