Kamptzia albens (A.Cunn. ex DC.) Nees
Metrosideros glomulifera Graeffer ex Sm.
Metrosideros propinqua K.D.Koenig & Sims
Nania glomulifera (Sm.) Kuntze
Syncarpia laurifolia Ten.
Syncarpia procera (K.D.Koenig & Sims) Domin
Tristania albens A.Cunn. ex DC.
Common Name: Turpentine
Photograph by: Raffi Kojian
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0
Turpentine is a tall tree, commonly growing 40 - 45 metres tall with occasional specimens up to 60 metres[
]. The straight bole may reach a diameter of 100 - 150cm[
The tree produces a valuable and very durable timber, as well as an aromatic resin. It is cultivated as a timber crop in some areas and is also grown in areas such as S. India, Argentina and southern USA as a shade and ornamental tree[
Australia - New South Wales, Queensland.
Thrives best in valleys, on flats and in basins in locations varying from coastal lowlands to mountains and tablelands[
]. Often grows as an emergent near the margins of rainforest or in wet sclerophyll forest, often on heavier soils[
|Other Uses Rating||
|Cultivation Status||Cultivated, Ornamental, Wild
A plant of subtropical to tropical regions, within its native range it occurs naturally within the latitudinal range of 16 - 36°S at altitudes between sea level and 900 metres[
]. It grows best in areas where the mean maximum and minimum temperatures are within the range 18 - 28°c, though it can tolerate 8 - 36°c[
]. Even when dormant, it can be killed by temperatures falling to -5°c or lower[
]. It prefers a mean annual rainfall of 1,300 - 1,700mm, but can tolerate 1,000 - 2,000mm[
Prefers a sunny position[
]. Succeeds in most well-drained soils, preferring a medium soil of high fertility[
]. Prefers a pH in the range 5.5 - 6.5, tolerating 5 - 7[
Open growing trees tend to coppice along the stem producing long, narrow crowns[
A good bee plant[
Because the wood is very difficult to burn, the tree is planted in the midst of forests to form fire-stopping hedges[
The tree can be used to make a good screen[
The tree is of potential use in reforestation schemes[
An aromatic, orange-red oleo-resin is obtained from the tree[
]. Small tears of the resin can be found on the outside of mature fruits, whilst it also exudes from wounds made in the bark. It is best obtained, however, by felling a tree, when it exudes between the bark and sapwood in small drops, which may be scraped off, and the resin collected fairly continuously, and in a pure state[
]. It is remarkably like Venice turpentine (from Larix occidentalis), both in colour and in viscidity, with a very agreeable turpentine odour[
]. In degree and character it is something between those of Venice turpentine and Canada Balsam (from Abies balsamea))[
The heartwood is red to reddish-brown; demarcated from the light-coloured sapwood. The wood is fine and even in texture; the grain usually interlocked; hard; strong and very durable in the soil. The resin in the wood makes it highly resistant to decay, termites and marine organisms. The wood is also very difficult to ignite. It is used for structural purposes, such as piles, poles, girders, beams, wharf decking and heavy-duty floors, as well as for wagons, railway sleepers, posts etc[
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