If you would like to support this site, please consider Donating.
Useful Tropical Plants

Spondias dulcis

Sol. ex Parkinson

Anacardiaceae

+ Synonyms

Spondias cytherea Sonn.

Common Name: Golden Apple

Spondias dulcis
Fruits and young shoot
Photograph by: Owoce ?liwiec s?odki
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0
Spondias dulcis Spondias dulcis Spondias dulcis Spondias dulcis Spondias dulcis Spondias dulcis Spondias dulcis Spondias dulcis

General Information

Golden apple is a fast-growing and graceful deciduous tree that can reach a height of 25 metres, though 15 metres is a more common height[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
,
335
Title
Perennial Edible Fruits of the Tropics : an Inventory
Publication
 
Author
Martin, F. W.; Campbell, C. W.; Rubertbe, R. M.
Publisher
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service
Year
1987
ISBN
 
Description
A booklet giving terse details of almost 300 species of edible fruits, plus regional lists of Botanical and Common names for over 2,500 less well-known edible fruits of the tropics.
]. The bole can be 45cm in diameter[
447
Title
Common Trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands
Publication
 
Author
Little E.L.; Wadsworth F.H.
Publisher
USDA, Forest Service; Washington.
Year
1964
ISBN
 
Description
Contains detailed information, and usually an illustration, on 250 tree species, including both native and exotic species.
].
The tree is often cultivated in the tropics, both for its edible fruit and as an ornamental[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
].

Known Hazards

Care should be taken when eating the fruit since the seeds have very sharp spines[
307
Title
Tropical and Subtropical Trees - A Worldwide Encyclopaedic Guide.
Publication
 
Author
Barwick. M.
Publisher
Thames & Hudson, London
Year
2004
ISBN
0-500-51181-0
Description
A superb book, very concise and well written, giving a wealth of information on 400 or more species including descriptions, habitat, cultivation details and plant uses. A wealth of colour photographs bring each plant vividly to life.
].

Botanical References

200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

Range

Probably arose in tropical Asia, but only known in cultivation.

Habitat

Dry or secondary forests from sea-level to 500 metres[
311
Title
Medicinal Plants in the South Pacific
Publication
 
Author
 
Publisher
WHO Regional Publications, Manilla.
Year
1998
ISBN
92-9061-118-9
Description
Excellent guide to 102 medicinal herbs of the Pacific Islands, with photographs of each plant and details of their constituents, biological activities and traditional uses. A description of each plant, together with habitat and distribution is given.
].

Properties

Edibility Rating *  *  *  *
Medicinal Rating *  *
HabitDeciduous Tree
Height15.00 m
Growth RateFast
PollinatorsBees
Cultivation StatusCultivated, Ornamental, Wild

Cultivation Details

The plant grows best in the subhumid and frost-free tropics, where it is found from sea level up to 700 metres[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
,
306
Title
Under-Utilized Tropical Fruits of Thailand. RAP Publication 2001/26
Publication
 
Author
Suranant Subhadrabandhu
Publisher
F. A. O., The United Nations, Bangkok.
Year
2001
ISBN
 
Description
A detailed report on 35 fruit species that could have potential for increased production in Thailand.
]. It grows best in areas where annual daytime temperatures are within the range 22 - 27°c, but can tolerate 12 - 35°c[
418
Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.
]. When dormant, the plant can survive temperatures down to about -3°c, but young growth can be severely damaged at 0°c[
418
Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.
]. It prefers a mean annual rainfall in the range 900 - 1,800mm, but tolerates 600 - 2,200mm[
418
Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.
].
Trees need to be grown in a sunny position, very little fruit is produced when they are in the shade[
306
Title
Under-Utilized Tropical Fruits of Thailand. RAP Publication 2001/26
Publication
 
Author
Suranant Subhadrabandhu
Publisher
F. A. O., The United Nations, Bangkok.
Year
2001
ISBN
 
Description
A detailed report on 35 fruit species that could have potential for increased production in Thailand.
]. Plants are not too fussy over soil, not needing very fertile conditions. However, very poor soil, or shallow land, is unsuitable[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
]. It succeeds on limestone derived soils as well as on acid sands, but the soil should be well drained[
306
Title
Under-Utilized Tropical Fruits of Thailand. RAP Publication 2001/26
Publication
 
Author
Suranant Subhadrabandhu
Publisher
F. A. O., The United Nations, Bangkok.
Year
2001
ISBN
 
Description
A detailed report on 35 fruit species that could have potential for increased production in Thailand.
]. Prefers a pH in the range 5.5 - 6.5, tolerating 4.5 - 8[
418
Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.
]. The branches are quite brittle, so a sheltered position is best[
306
Title
Under-Utilized Tropical Fruits of Thailand. RAP Publication 2001/26
Publication
 
Author
Suranant Subhadrabandhu
Publisher
F. A. O., The United Nations, Bangkok.
Year
2001
ISBN
 
Description
A detailed report on 35 fruit species that could have potential for increased production in Thailand.
]. Established plants are drought tolerant, though they may briefly lose their leaves when under stress[
306
Title
Under-Utilized Tropical Fruits of Thailand. RAP Publication 2001/26
Publication
 
Author
Suranant Subhadrabandhu
Publisher
F. A. O., The United Nations, Bangkok.
Year
2001
ISBN
 
Description
A detailed report on 35 fruit species that could have potential for increased production in Thailand.
].
Plants can bear fruit in only 4 years from seed, or 2 - 3 years from cuttings[
306
Title
Under-Utilized Tropical Fruits of Thailand. RAP Publication 2001/26
Publication
 
Author
Suranant Subhadrabandhu
Publisher
F. A. O., The United Nations, Bangkok.
Year
2001
ISBN
 
Description
A detailed report on 35 fruit species that could have potential for increased production in Thailand.
,
335
Title
Perennial Edible Fruits of the Tropics : an Inventory
Publication
 
Author
Martin, F. W.; Campbell, C. W.; Rubertbe, R. M.
Publisher
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service
Year
1987
ISBN
 
Description
A booklet giving terse details of almost 300 species of edible fruits, plus regional lists of Botanical and Common names for over 2,500 less well-known edible fruits of the tropics.
].
In areas where there is no prolonged dry season, the plant can flower and fruit all year round, though in pronounced monsoonal areas it will usually flower only in the dry season[
306
Title
Under-Utilized Tropical Fruits of Thailand. RAP Publication 2001/26
Publication
 
Author
Suranant Subhadrabandhu
Publisher
F. A. O., The United Nations, Bangkok.
Year
2001
ISBN
 
Description
A detailed report on 35 fruit species that could have potential for increased production in Thailand.
].

Edible Uses

Fruit - raw or cooked[
301
Title
Cornucopia II
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications, California.
Year
1998
ISBN
0-9628087-2-5
Description
The second edition of an excellent guide to the edible uses of plants, though it does not give any details of cultivation etc.
]. When green, the fruit is crisp and subacid[
306
Title
Under-Utilized Tropical Fruits of Thailand. RAP Publication 2001/26
Publication
 
Author
Suranant Subhadrabandhu
Publisher
F. A. O., The United Nations, Bangkok.
Year
2001
ISBN
 
Description
A detailed report on 35 fruit species that could have potential for increased production in Thailand.
]. As the fruit ripens to a yellow colour, the flesh softens; the flavour changes and the fibres become more noticeable[
306
Title
Under-Utilized Tropical Fruits of Thailand. RAP Publication 2001/26
Publication
 
Author
Suranant Subhadrabandhu
Publisher
F. A. O., The United Nations, Bangkok.
Year
2001
ISBN
 
Description
A detailed report on 35 fruit species that could have potential for increased production in Thailand.
]. The ripe amber-coloured, plum-shaped fruits have a sweet to acid, slightly turpentine flavour[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
]. They can be made into jams, marmalade etc[
301
Title
Cornucopia II
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications, California.
Year
1998
ISBN
0-9628087-2-5
Description
The second edition of an excellent guide to the edible uses of plants, though it does not give any details of cultivation etc.
]. Unripe fruits are often used as a sour flavouring in sauces, soups etc[
301
Title
Cornucopia II
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications, California.
Year
1998
ISBN
0-9628087-2-5
Description
The second edition of an excellent guide to the edible uses of plants, though it does not give any details of cultivation etc.
]. The unripe fruit contains about 10% pectin[
306
Title
Under-Utilized Tropical Fruits of Thailand. RAP Publication 2001/26
Publication
 
Author
Suranant Subhadrabandhu
Publisher
F. A. O., The United Nations, Bangkok.
Year
2001
ISBN
 
Description
A detailed report on 35 fruit species that could have potential for increased production in Thailand.
]. The oblong fruit is up to 10cm long x 8cm wide[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
].

Young leaves - raw or cooked[
301
Title
Cornucopia II
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications, California.
Year
1998
ISBN
0-9628087-2-5
Description
The second edition of an excellent guide to the edible uses of plants, though it does not give any details of cultivation etc.
]. Pleasantly acid[
301
Title
Cornucopia II
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications, California.
Year
1998
ISBN
0-9628087-2-5
Description
The second edition of an excellent guide to the edible uses of plants, though it does not give any details of cultivation etc.
]. Steamed and eaten as a vegetable[
306
Title
Under-Utilized Tropical Fruits of Thailand. RAP Publication 2001/26
Publication
 
Author
Suranant Subhadrabandhu
Publisher
F. A. O., The United Nations, Bangkok.
Year
2001
ISBN
 
Description
A detailed report on 35 fruit species that could have potential for increased production in Thailand.
].

Medicinal

There are diverse traditional medicinal uses of the fruits, leaves and bark in different parts of the world. The treatment of wounds, sores and burns is reported from several countries[
306
Title
Under-Utilized Tropical Fruits of Thailand. RAP Publication 2001/26
Publication
 
Author
Suranant Subhadrabandhu
Publisher
F. A. O., The United Nations, Bangkok.
Year
2001
ISBN
 
Description
A detailed report on 35 fruit species that could have potential for increased production in Thailand.
]. Parts of the plant are made into a fermented drink which is used as a remedy for diarrhoea[
311
Title
Medicinal Plants in the South Pacific
Publication
 
Author
 
Publisher
WHO Regional Publications, Manilla.
Year
1998
ISBN
92-9061-118-9
Description
Excellent guide to 102 medicinal herbs of the Pacific Islands, with photographs of each plant and details of their constituents, biological activities and traditional uses. A description of each plant, together with habitat and distribution is given.
].

The juice of the plant is used as eye drops to reduce eye inflammations[
311
Title
Medicinal Plants in the South Pacific
Publication
 
Author
 
Publisher
WHO Regional Publications, Manilla.
Year
1998
ISBN
92-9061-118-9
Description
Excellent guide to 102 medicinal herbs of the Pacific Islands, with photographs of each plant and details of their constituents, biological activities and traditional uses. A description of each plant, together with habitat and distribution is given.
].
The shoots of the plant are used to treat haemorrhaging after childbirth[
311
Title
Medicinal Plants in the South Pacific
Publication
 
Author
 
Publisher
WHO Regional Publications, Manilla.
Year
1998
ISBN
92-9061-118-9
Description
Excellent guide to 102 medicinal herbs of the Pacific Islands, with photographs of each plant and details of their constituents, biological activities and traditional uses. A description of each plant, together with habitat and distribution is given.
].
The pressed liquid obtained from the stem is given after a false pregnancy, and for weakness following childbirth[
311
Title
Medicinal Plants in the South Pacific
Publication
 
Author
 
Publisher
WHO Regional Publications, Manilla.
Year
1998
ISBN
92-9061-118-9
Description
Excellent guide to 102 medicinal herbs of the Pacific Islands, with photographs of each plant and details of their constituents, biological activities and traditional uses. A description of each plant, together with habitat and distribution is given.
].
An infusion of the leaves is used to treat sore throats and mouth infections[
311
Title
Medicinal Plants in the South Pacific
Publication
 
Author
 
Publisher
WHO Regional Publications, Manilla.
Year
1998
ISBN
92-9061-118-9
Description
Excellent guide to 102 medicinal herbs of the Pacific Islands, with photographs of each plant and details of their constituents, biological activities and traditional uses. A description of each plant, together with habitat and distribution is given.
].

The pressed liquid obtained from the bark is taken to cleanse the bowels[
311
Title
Medicinal Plants in the South Pacific
Publication
 
Author
 
Publisher
WHO Regional Publications, Manilla.
Year
1998
ISBN
92-9061-118-9
Description
Excellent guide to 102 medicinal herbs of the Pacific Islands, with photographs of each plant and details of their constituents, biological activities and traditional uses. A description of each plant, together with habitat and distribution is given.
]. The bark filtrate is also employed as an abortifacient, to promote sterility and to treat fish poisoning[
311
Title
Medicinal Plants in the South Pacific
Publication
 
Author
 
Publisher
WHO Regional Publications, Manilla.
Year
1998
ISBN
92-9061-118-9
Description
Excellent guide to 102 medicinal herbs of the Pacific Islands, with photographs of each plant and details of their constituents, biological activities and traditional uses. A description of each plant, together with habitat and distribution is given.
]. A few drops of the pressed bark fluid are applied to the eyes as a remedy for cataracts[
311
Title
Medicinal Plants in the South Pacific
Publication
 
Author
 
Publisher
WHO Regional Publications, Manilla.
Year
1998
ISBN
92-9061-118-9
Description
Excellent guide to 102 medicinal herbs of the Pacific Islands, with photographs of each plant and details of their constituents, biological activities and traditional uses. A description of each plant, together with habitat and distribution is given.
]. Fluid pressed from the bark is used in treating diarrhoea, whilst the bark is also used to treat dysentery[
311
Title
Medicinal Plants in the South Pacific
Publication
 
Author
 
Publisher
WHO Regional Publications, Manilla.
Year
1998
ISBN
92-9061-118-9
Description
Excellent guide to 102 medicinal herbs of the Pacific Islands, with photographs of each plant and details of their constituents, biological activities and traditional uses. A description of each plant, together with habitat and distribution is given.
].
The inner bark is used to treat coughs, fever and stomach aches[
311
Title
Medicinal Plants in the South Pacific
Publication
 
Author
 
Publisher
WHO Regional Publications, Manilla.
Year
1998
ISBN
92-9061-118-9
Description
Excellent guide to 102 medicinal herbs of the Pacific Islands, with photographs of each plant and details of their constituents, biological activities and traditional uses. A description of each plant, together with habitat and distribution is given.
]. It is also used to treat mouth and body sores[
311
Title
Medicinal Plants in the South Pacific
Publication
 
Author
 
Publisher
WHO Regional Publications, Manilla.
Year
1998
ISBN
92-9061-118-9
Description
Excellent guide to 102 medicinal herbs of the Pacific Islands, with photographs of each plant and details of their constituents, biological activities and traditional uses. A description of each plant, together with habitat and distribution is given.
].

The fruit is mildly diuretic[
348
Title
Medicinal Plants of the Guianas
Publication
 
Author
DeFilipps, R. A.; Maina, S. L.; & Crepin, J.
Website
http://botany.si.edu/bdg/medicinal/index.html
Publisher
Smithsonian Museum
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A down-loadable PDF document of a book in pre-publication awaiting illustration. An excellent, if rather terse, guide to the traditional medicinal uses of the plants of the region
]. The grated fruit, mixed with water, is used to treat high blood pressure[
348
Title
Medicinal Plants of the Guianas
Publication
 
Author
DeFilipps, R. A.; Maina, S. L.; & Crepin, J.
Website
http://botany.si.edu/bdg/medicinal/index.html
Publisher
Smithsonian Museum
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A down-loadable PDF document of a book in pre-publication awaiting illustration. An excellent, if rather terse, guide to the traditional medicinal uses of the plants of the region
]. The young fruit is used to treat stomach trouble and to aid a woman in labour[
311
Title
Medicinal Plants in the South Pacific
Publication
 
Author
 
Publisher
WHO Regional Publications, Manilla.
Year
1998
ISBN
92-9061-118-9
Description
Excellent guide to 102 medicinal herbs of the Pacific Islands, with photographs of each plant and details of their constituents, biological activities and traditional uses. A description of each plant, together with habitat and distribution is given.
].

Agroforestry Uses:

The plant is said to be grown as a living fence[
306
Title
Under-Utilized Tropical Fruits of Thailand. RAP Publication 2001/26
Publication
 
Author
Suranant Subhadrabandhu
Publisher
F. A. O., The United Nations, Bangkok.
Year
2001
ISBN
 
Description
A detailed report on 35 fruit species that could have potential for increased production in Thailand.
].

Other Uses

The heartwood is light brown; the sapwood whitish to light yellow. The wood is light in weight; moderately soft; not durable[
447
Title
Common Trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands
Publication
 
Author
Little E.L.; Wadsworth F.H.
Publisher
USDA, Forest Service; Washington.
Year
1964
ISBN
 
Description
Contains detailed information, and usually an illustration, on 250 tree species, including both native and exotic species.
].

Propagation

Seed - germinates within one month[
306
Title
Under-Utilized Tropical Fruits of Thailand. RAP Publication 2001/26
Publication
 
Author
Suranant Subhadrabandhu
Publisher
F. A. O., The United Nations, Bangkok.
Year
2001
ISBN
 
Description
A detailed report on 35 fruit species that could have potential for increased production in Thailand.
].
Quite large cuttings[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
]. It is reported that large stumps are stuck in the ground to obtain live fence posts[
306
Title
Under-Utilized Tropical Fruits of Thailand. RAP Publication 2001/26
Publication
 
Author
Suranant Subhadrabandhu
Publisher
F. A. O., The United Nations, Bangkok.
Year
2001
ISBN
 
Description
A detailed report on 35 fruit species that could have potential for increased production in Thailand.
].
Air layers root easily[
306
Title
Under-Utilized Tropical Fruits of Thailand. RAP Publication 2001/26
Publication
 
Author
Suranant Subhadrabandhu
Publisher
F. A. O., The United Nations, Bangkok.
Year
2001
ISBN
 
Description
A detailed report on 35 fruit species that could have potential for increased production in Thailand.
].
Grafting or shield budding on Spondias rootstocks is also possible, however seedling trees are more vigorous than budded or grafted trees[
306
Title
Under-Utilized Tropical Fruits of Thailand. RAP Publication 2001/26
Publication
 
Author
Suranant Subhadrabandhu
Publisher
F. A. O., The United Nations, Bangkok.
Year
2001
ISBN
 
Description
A detailed report on 35 fruit species that could have potential for increased production in Thailand.
].

Add a Comment:

If you have any useful information about this plant, please leave a comment. Comments have to be approved before they are shown here.