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Useful Tropical Plants

Shorea maxima

(King) Symington

Dipterocarpaceae

+ Synonyms

Balanocarpus maximus King

Common Name: Yellow Meranti

Shorea maxima
Leaves
Photograph by: Patrice78500
Creative Commons License
Shorea maxima Shorea maxima

General Information

Yellow meranti is a small to medium sized, often crooked tree[
451
Title
Flora Malesiana Series 1
Publication
 
Author
Various
Website
http://www.archive.org
Publisher
Nationaal Herbarium Nederiand, Universiteit Leiden branch
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A massive treatment of the plants of the Malaysian Archipelago. Much of it has been made available to download from the Internet
].
The tree is harvested from the wild for its wood and resin. The wood is a source of 'yellow meranti' timber, which is commonly traded[
946
Title
Timber Notes - Light Hardwoods 1
Publication
Timber Technology Bulletin No. 9
Author
Choo K.T.; Gan K.S.; Lim S.C.
Website
https://info.frim.gov.my/infocenter/booksonline/ttb/TTBno9.pdf
Publisher
Timber Technology Centre; Kuala Lumpur
Year
1998
ISBN
139-258
Description
An excellent series of leaflets, this one gives information on the wood of several species in the genus Shorea. It can be downloaded as a PDF document from the Internet.
].
The tree has been overexploited for its timber - the export of which has now been banned[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
]. The tree has been listed as 'Endangered' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species(2013)[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].

Known Hazards

None known

Botanical References

451
Title
Flora Malesiana Series 1
Publication
 
Author
Various
Website
http://www.archive.org
Publisher
Nationaal Herbarium Nederiand, Universiteit Leiden branch
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A massive treatment of the plants of the Malaysian Archipelago. Much of it has been made available to download from the Internet

Range

E. Asia - Malaysia to Indonesia.

Habitat

Lowland and hill forest to elevations of 1,300 metres[
334
Title
Flora of Peninsula Malaysia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.tfbc.frim.gov.my
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
In the process of being assembled (15/07/09), it is currently a series of check sheets giving species name, brief description, habitat and high quality photos of the plants.
]. Undulating land and hills[
451
Title
Flora Malesiana Series 1
Publication
 
Author
Various
Website
http://www.archive.org
Publisher
Nationaal Herbarium Nederiand, Universiteit Leiden branch
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A massive treatment of the plants of the Malaysian Archipelago. Much of it has been made available to download from the Internet
].

Properties

Conservation StatusEndangered
Other Uses Rating *  *  *
HabitTree
Height0.00 m
Cultivation StatusWild

Cultivation Details

A plant of mainly lowland areas in the moist tropics, where it is found at elevations up to 1,300 metres[
451
Title
Flora Malesiana Series 1
Publication
 
Author
Various
Website
http://www.archive.org
Publisher
Nationaal Herbarium Nederiand, Universiteit Leiden branch
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A massive treatment of the plants of the Malaysian Archipelago. Much of it has been made available to download from the Internet
].

Edible Uses

None known

Medicinal

None known

Other Uses

The tree is a source of a dammar penak resin[
46
Title
Dictionary of Economic Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Uphof. J. C. Th.
Publisher
Weinheim
Year
1959
ISBN
-
Description
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
].
Dammar is a hard resin, obtained from various trees of Southeast Asia. Traditionally, it is used for purposes such as caulking boats and baskets, as an adhesive, a medicine, as a fuel for torches and sometimes in foods. Dammar has many commercial applications, though many of these uses are less important nowadays due to the advent of synthetic materials. Commercially, it is an ingredient of inks, lacquers, oil paints, varnishes etc, and is used as a glazing agent in foods[
891
Title
Gums, Resins and Latexes of Plant Origins.
Publication
Non-Wood Forest Products 6.
Author
Coppen J.J.W.
Website
http://www.fao.org/docrep/
Publisher
FAO, United Nations; Rome
Year
1995
ISBN
92-5-103757-4
Description
A handbook published by the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, it provides good basic information on the sources and uses of the various gums, resins and latexes. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
].
Harvesting of the resin commences when the bole is around 25cm in diameter (approx 20 years old). Triangular cuts (becoming circular with age) are arranged in vertical rows around the trunk. The cuts are several centimetres wide at first, but become enlarged at every tapping and eventually become holes of 15 - 20cm in depth and width. The average number of holes for a tree about 30 metres tall and 60 - 80cm in diameter is 9 - 11 in each of 4 - 5 vertical rows. For the higher holes, the tapper climbs the tree supported by a rattan belt and using the lower holes as footholds.
The exuded resin is allowed to dry on the tree before it is collected. The frequency with which the tree is visited to refreshen the cut varies from once a week to once a month, depending on how far the tree is from the village. Tapping can continue for 30 years[
891
Title
Gums, Resins and Latexes of Plant Origins.
Publication
Non-Wood Forest Products 6.
Author
Coppen J.J.W.
Website
http://www.fao.org/docrep/
Publisher
FAO, United Nations; Rome
Year
1995
ISBN
92-5-103757-4
Description
A handbook published by the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, it provides good basic information on the sources and uses of the various gums, resins and latexes. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
].

The wood is a source of 'yellow meranti' wood. We do not have any specific information on the wood of this species, but a general description of yellow meranti wood is as follows:-
The heartwood is a light brown; it is moderately distinct from the lighter coloured sapwood. The texture is moderately coarse but even; the grain is straight to interlocked. The wood is not very durable, and is susceptible to powder-post beetle attacks in the sapwood. It is easy to saw, cross-cut and plane; planed surfaces are smooth to moderately smooth; nailing property ranges from good to poor according to the species. The wood is suitable for general utilily purposes, planking, light construction, panelling and partitioning, furniture manufacture, flooring and pallets. It is a popular species for making plywood[
946
Title
Timber Notes - Light Hardwoods 1
Publication
Timber Technology Bulletin No. 9
Author
Choo K.T.; Gan K.S.; Lim S.C.
Website
https://info.frim.gov.my/infocenter/booksonline/ttb/TTBno9.pdf
Publisher
Timber Technology Centre; Kuala Lumpur
Year
1998
ISBN
139-258
Description
An excellent series of leaflets, this one gives information on the wood of several species in the genus Shorea. It can be downloaded as a PDF document from the Internet.
].

Propagation

We have no specific information for this species - the information below is a general guide for the genus.

Seed - best sown as soon as possible. It does not require pre-treatment, but it is recommended to soak the seed for 12 hours prior to sowing[
325
Title
Seed Leaflets
Publication
 
Author
Various
Website
http://en.sl.life.ku.dk/Publikationer/Udgivelser/PopulaerPublikationer.aspx?katid={D28373CC-6EF3-4EF8-B097-6D83FABF209E}&serieid={9F1C3DB1-6E7B-4CF1-AF53-F480B0CB40EF}&sort=title
Publisher
Forest & Landscape. Denmark
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A series of leaflets, jointly produced by the University of Copenhagen and the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, focussing on seed information for a number species, but also giving a lot of other information about each plant.
]. The seeds are sown in seedbeds, where they are covered with a mixture of sand and soil (1:1) or with a thin layer of sawdust[
325
Title
Seed Leaflets
Publication
 
Author
Various
Website
http://en.sl.life.ku.dk/Publikationer/Udgivelser/PopulaerPublikationer.aspx?katid={D28373CC-6EF3-4EF8-B097-6D83FABF209E}&serieid={9F1C3DB1-6E7B-4CF1-AF53-F480B0CB40EF}&sort=title
Publisher
Forest & Landscape. Denmark
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A series of leaflets, jointly produced by the University of Copenhagen and the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, focussing on seed information for a number species, but also giving a lot of other information about each plant.
]. Germination of fresh seeds is usually good and rapid. About two weeks after germination, when the seedlings are 5 - 6cm tall, they are potted up into individual containers about 15 x 23cm with good drainage holes at their base[
325
Title
Seed Leaflets
Publication
 
Author
Various
Website
http://en.sl.life.ku.dk/Publikationer/Udgivelser/PopulaerPublikationer.aspx?katid={D28373CC-6EF3-4EF8-B097-6D83FABF209E}&serieid={9F1C3DB1-6E7B-4CF1-AF53-F480B0CB40EF}&sort=title
Publisher
Forest & Landscape. Denmark
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A series of leaflets, jointly produced by the University of Copenhagen and the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, focussing on seed information for a number species, but also giving a lot of other information about each plant.
]. It is normally recommended to use a mixture of forest soil and sand (at a ratio of 3:1) as the potting medium in order to introduce the appropriate mycorrhiza to the roots. The seedlings are placed in
50 - 60% sunlight and watered twice daily[
325
Title
Seed Leaflets
Publication
 
Author
Various
Website
http://en.sl.life.ku.dk/Publikationer/Udgivelser/PopulaerPublikationer.aspx?katid={D28373CC-6EF3-4EF8-B097-6D83FABF209E}&serieid={9F1C3DB1-6E7B-4CF1-AF53-F480B0CB40EF}&sort=title
Publisher
Forest & Landscape. Denmark
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A series of leaflets, jointly produced by the University of Copenhagen and the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, focussing on seed information for a number species, but also giving a lot of other information about each plant.
].
Seedlings can be planted out when 30 - 40cm tall - harden the seedlings off in full sunlight for one month prior to planting[
325
Title
Seed Leaflets
Publication
 
Author
Various
Website
http://en.sl.life.ku.dk/Publikationer/Udgivelser/PopulaerPublikationer.aspx?katid={D28373CC-6EF3-4EF8-B097-6D83FABF209E}&serieid={9F1C3DB1-6E7B-4CF1-AF53-F480B0CB40EF}&sort=title
Publisher
Forest & Landscape. Denmark
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A series of leaflets, jointly produced by the University of Copenhagen and the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, focussing on seed information for a number species, but also giving a lot of other information about each plant.
].

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