Balanocarpus maximus King
Common Name: Yellow Meranti
Yellow meranti is a small to medium sized, often crooked tree[
The tree is harvested from the wild for its wood and resin. The wood is a source of 'yellow meranti' timber, which is commonly traded[
The tree has been overexploited for its timber - the export of which has now been banned[
]. The tree has been listed as 'Endangered' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species(2013)[
E. Asia - Malaysia to Indonesia.
Lowland and hill forest to elevations of 1,300 metres[
]. Undulating land and hills[
|Other Uses Rating||
A plant of mainly lowland areas in the moist tropics, where it is found at elevations up to 1,300 metres[
The tree is a source of a dammar penak resin[
Dammar is a hard resin, obtained from various trees of Southeast Asia. Traditionally, it is used for purposes such as caulking boats and baskets, as an adhesive, a medicine, as a fuel for torches and sometimes in foods. Dammar has many commercial applications, though many of these uses are less important nowadays due to the advent of synthetic materials. Commercially, it is an ingredient of inks, lacquers, oil paints, varnishes etc, and is used as a glazing agent in foods[
Harvesting of the resin commences when the bole is around 25cm in diameter (approx 20 years old). Triangular cuts (becoming circular with age) are arranged in vertical rows around the trunk. The cuts are several centimetres wide at first, but become enlarged at every tapping and eventually become holes of 15 - 20cm in depth and width. The average number of holes for a tree about 30 metres tall and 60 - 80cm in diameter is 9 - 11 in each of 4 - 5 vertical rows. For the higher holes, the tapper climbs the tree supported by a rattan belt and using the lower holes as footholds.
The exuded resin is allowed to dry on the tree before it is collected. The frequency with which the tree is visited to refreshen the cut varies from once a week to once a month, depending on how far the tree is from the village. Tapping can continue for 30 years[
The wood is a source of 'yellow meranti' wood. We do not have any specific information on the wood of this species, but a general description of yellow meranti wood is as follows:-
The heartwood is a light brown; it is moderately distinct from the lighter coloured sapwood. The texture is moderately coarse but even; the grain is straight to interlocked. The wood is not very durable, and is susceptible to powder-post beetle attacks in the sapwood. It is easy to saw, cross-cut and plane; planed surfaces are smooth to moderately smooth; nailing property ranges from good to poor according to the species. The wood is suitable for general utilily purposes, planking, light construction, panelling and partitioning, furniture manufacture, flooring and pallets. It is a popular species for making plywood[
We have no specific information for this species - the information below is a general guide for the genus.
Seed - best sown as soon as possible. It does not require pre-treatment, but it is recommended to soak the seed for 12 hours prior to sowing[
]. The seeds are sown in seedbeds, where they are covered with a mixture of sand and soil (1:1) or with a thin layer of sawdust[
]. Germination of fresh seeds is usually good and rapid. About two weeks after germination, when the seedlings are 5 - 6cm tall, they are potted up into individual containers about 15 x 23cm with good drainage holes at their base[
]. It is normally recommended to use a mixture of forest soil and sand (at a ratio of 3:1) as the potting medium in order to introduce the appropriate mycorrhiza to the roots. The seedlings are placed in
50 - 60% sunlight and watered twice daily[
Seedlings can be planted out when 30 - 40cm tall - harden the seedlings off in full sunlight for one month prior to planting[
If you have any useful information about this plant, please leave a comment. Comments have to be approved before they are shown here.