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Useful Tropical Plants

Salacca wallichiana

Mart.

Arecaceae

+ Synonyms

Calamus zalacca Roxb.

Salacca beccarii Hook.f.

Salacca macrostachya Griff.

Common Name: Rakum Palm

Salacca wallichiana
Ripe fruits
Photograph by: Tatters ?
Creative Commons License
Salacca wallichiana Salacca wallichiana Salacca wallichiana Salacca wallichiana Salacca wallichiana Salacca wallichiana Salacca wallichiana Salacca wallichiana Salacca wallichiana

General Information

Rakum palm is an evergreen palm with very spiny leaves that are 3 - 7 metres long[
303
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World Agroforesty Centre
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http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
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Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. A creeping and tillering palm that grows in clumps, the creeping, unbranched stems can reach 3 - 4 metres long in plants over 100 years old with an erect terminal leaf-bearing part 1 metre tall and with many adventitious roots, most abundant towards the tip[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
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http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
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An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. Roots can reach a length of 2 metres but do not extend to a great depth[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
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Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
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Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
The plants are valued for their edible fruit, mainly in Thailand, and are also harvested as a source of construction materials. Superior fruit-bearing forms have been developed and these are often cultivated in gardens and plantations[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
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http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
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Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].

Known Hazards

None known

Botanical References


Range

Southeast Asia - Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia.

Habitat

Forests[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
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Website
http://proseanet.org/
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Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].

Properties

Edibility Rating *  *  *
Other Uses Rating *  *
HabitEvergreen Shrub
Height2.00 m
Growth RateSlow
PollinatorsInsects
Self-fertileNo
Cultivation StatusCultivated, Wild

Cultivation Details

A plant of the hot, moist tropical lowlands[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
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Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
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Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. It grows in areas where the mean annual rainfall is 2,500 - 3,000mm with a dry season of 5 - 6 months[
303
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World Agroforesty Centre
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http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
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An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. A dry season is needed for good fruit set; spadices emerging in the rainy season tend to rot and the viability of the pollen is poor[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
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http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
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Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. The temperature range required is 22 - 32°c; lower temperatures reduce flowering[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
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Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
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Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
Thrives in soils ranging from sandy loam to heavy clay[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
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Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
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0
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An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. On low-lying wetlands it grows better than most fruit trees[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
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http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
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An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. Prefers a pH in the range 5 - 6, tolerating 4.5 - 6.5[
418
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Ecocrop
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Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
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Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.
]. Established plants can stand drought very well but, for a good yield of fruit, irrigation is required in the dry season[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
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http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
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Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. In its natural habitat and in mixed orchards rakum is commonly found growing under shade, but in commercial orchards the palms can be grown successfully without shade, provided they are irrigated[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
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Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
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Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
Plants commence flowering when about 5 - 6 years old[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
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Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
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Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. The plant flowers all year round, the fruit ripening 7 - 9 months after flowering[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
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http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
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0
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Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. Nearly all fruit set, however, takes place early in the dry season, leading to a very seasonal harvesting of the fruit[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
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Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
The average annual fruit yield varies between 6 - 12 t/ha depending on the cultivars.
The skin of 10 - 16 week-old fruitlets is brown, turning darker to almost black at 17 - 23 weeks, gradually changing to orange when the fruit ripens[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
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Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
The flesh of 10 - 19 week-old fruits is off-white and turns to light yellow when the fruits are 20 - 22 weeks old; as the fruit grows it gradually assumes a more yellow-orange colour[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
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Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
The stones in 10 - 19 week-old fruits are white and contain a jelly-like substance. The colour changes to yellow at 20 - 23 weeks of age and to brown thereafter while the contents harden[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
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Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
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Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
For the superior sala cultivars, harvesting time is 36 weeks and not later than 38 weeks after pollination[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
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Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
At harvest each fruit cluster or the entire infructescence is cut with a hooked knife or pruning shears on long handles[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
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Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
In young non-bearing orchards, removing suckers is the most unpleasant chore, but a must. One or two stems per clump are sufficient for good yield[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
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Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. Dense clumps yield poorly and are difficult to harvest[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
Leaf pruning is not advisable, but may be necessary to facilitate orchard operations[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
Hand pollination can raise yields substantially[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
Several cultivars with superior fruits have been developed[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
A dioecious species, both male and female forms need to be grown if fruit and seeds are required[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
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Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. About 1 male plant to every 15 females is considered sufficient for good pollination[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
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Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
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Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. Xenia effects are quite noticeable in S. Wallichiana, so it is important to choose a compatible male strain[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].

Edible Uses

The acid seeds are utilized as an ingredient in curries[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
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Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
The rakum palm is grown for the edible sarcotesta (fleshy seedcoat) of the fruit[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
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Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. The sour unripe fruit can be a substitute for lime in cooking, whereas the ripe fruit is sweet and consumed raw[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
For the sweetest fruit, the wild form should be harvested 28 weeks after anthesis (hand pollination). At this age the sugar content is 13 - 14° Brix[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
]. Fruits over 30 weeks old develop an unpleasant flavour[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
]. Fruits which are used for cooking can be harvested after 25 weeks[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
The fruit is a drupe, occurring in dense heads, obovoid, 2.5 cm long, the skin (epicarp) consisting of orange-brown scales with reflexed brittle points; endocarp not differentiated[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].

Medicinal

None known

Agroforestry Uses:

The wild, spiny form is grown as a fruit-bearing fence[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].

Other Uses

Wild clumps in the forest not only produce food, but are also a major source of cork, thatch and other construction materials in rural areas[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].

Propagation

Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe, it quickly loses its viability[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. The fresh seed germinates readily and propagation from seed is easy. Germination usually takes place in less than 10 days, with about 90% germination rate[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
Vegetative propagation of improved forms is usually recommended. Stem sections 1 - 2 metres long are taken from ageing, high-quality clones[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
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Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. These are buried in the soil and covered with a mulching material such as rice straw. The soil is kept moist to force viable buds on the cuttings to sprout[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. The plantlets are separated from the stem and nursed in polythene bags for a year before planting out in the field at the beginning of the rainy season[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
Vegetative propagation by separating rooted suckers from the mother palms is less common[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].

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