A variable species, several subspecies are recognised.
The taxonomic history of Prunus is long and complicated, in part due to the economic value of its fruit crops and also the ease with which some species hybridize. Here, Prunus is circumscribed in its broad sense based on the argument that when viewed on a worldwide scale, the morphologic discontinuities among the segregate genera diminish and they overlap with one another. Included here are species that have at times been placed in the genera Amygdalus, Armeniaca, Cerasus, Laurocerasus, Padus, and Persica.
At the species level, Prunus has been the object of the usual combining and splitting common among taxonomists with different philosophies and opinions. In particular, over-reliance on the indument of various vegetative and floral parts has led to the naming of numerous species and infraspecific taxa. Similarly, too much has been made of fruit colour and palatability in naming taxa of Prunus. It is very likely that, as molecular and genetic data are analyzed and, more importantly, correlated with morphological data, circumscriptions will be redrawn and the number of Prunus species will be reduced[
Digaster sumatranus Miq.
Polydontia arborea Blume
Pygeum affine Merr.
Pygeum anomalum Koehne
Pygeum arboreum Endl.
Pygeum arboreum Endl. Ex Kurz
Pygeum arboreum Müll.Berol.
Pygeum atrovillosum J.E.Vidal
Pygeum bachmaense J.E.Vidal
Pygeum blumei Teijsm. & Binn.
Pygeum brachybotrys Merr.
Pygeum capitellatum Hook.f.
Pygeum ciliatum Koehne
Pygeum diospyrophyllum Koehne
Pygeum donaiense J.E.Vidal
Pygeum ellipticum Merr.
Pygeum euphlebium Merr.
Pygeum ferreum Craib
Pygeum floribundum Koehne
Pygeum griffithii Koehne
Pygeum henryi Dunn
Pygeum intermedium King
Pygeum junghuhnii Koehne
Pygeum laxiflorum Merr. ex H.L.Li
Pygeum merrillianum Koehne
Pygeum montanum Hook.f.
Pygeum ocellatum Koehne
Pygeum ovalifolium King
Pygeum pachyphyllum Merr.
Pygeum parreauanum Pierre ex Cardot
Pygeum parreavii Pierre
Pygeum parviflorum Teijsm. & Binn.
Pygeum patens Ridl.
Pygeum persimile Kurz
Pygeum pilinospermum Koehne
Pygeum robustum Koord. & Valeton) Koehne
Pygeum rubiginosum Ridl.
Pygeum sericeum Koehne
Pygeum sessiliflorum Cardot
Pygeum stipulaceum King
Pygeum subcordatum (Koord. & Valeton) Koehne
Pygeum sumatranum (Miq.) Miq.
Pygeum timorense Koehne
Pygeum tokangpengii Merr.
Pygeum topengii Merr.
Pygeum wilsonii Koehne
Prunus arborea is a deciduous tree that usually grows up to 15 metres tall, occasionally to 30 metres. The straight, cylindrical bole can be up to 35cm in diameter and is sometimes buttressed[
The tree is harvested from the wild for its wood, which is used locally and sometimes traded. The tree has potential for growing as an ornamental[
The plant is classified as 'Least Concern' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species(2013)[
The plant (especially the seed and young shoots) contains cyanogenic glycosides, especially amygdalin and prunasin. When injested, these compounds break down in the digestive tract to release cyanide. Used in small quantities in both traditional and conventional medicine, this exceedingly poisonous compound has been shown to stimulate respiration, improve digestion, and promote a sense of well-being[
]. It is also claimed by some to be of benefit in the treatment of cancer - though this claim has been largely refuted.
In larger concentrations, however, cyanide can cause gasping, weakness, excitement, pupil dilation, spasms, convulsions, coma and respiratory failure leading to death[
The fruits and flowers of most members of this genus generally have low or very low concentrations of this toxin, though the seeds and young shoots can contain much higher levels.
The levels of toxin can be detected by the level of bitterness:- for example sweet tasting almond seeds are a major food crop and are often eaten in quantity, whilst bitter tasting almond seeds are used as a flavouring (in marzipan for example) but are not usually eaten on their own.
In general, it can be considered safe to eat any fruit or seed from species in this genus that either have a sweet flavour or are slightly bitter. Great caution should be taken, however, if the flavour is moderately to very bitter[
E. Asia - Pakistan, India, China, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam.
A mid-canopy tree in mixed dipterocarp, keranga, sub-montane and montane evergreen and humid forests; usually on hillsides and ridges, but also along rivers and streams; on sandy soils; at elevations from 200 - 3,000 metres[
|Conservation Status||Least Concern
|Other Uses Rating||
|Cultivation Status||Ornamental, Wild
A decoction of leaves is used as a drink to precipitate childbirth during labour[
The only pharmacological report available thus far on this plant is a clinical study of a phytosterol extract. It was shown that, in the case of prostatitis, the extract is effective for more than 90% of the patients treated, and was presented as being a highly reliable product for use by the specialist or general practitioner[
The bark is said to be suitable for making rice containers[
The heartwood is pink to red brow; the sapwood is somewhat paler. The texture is moderately fine to moderately coarse and even; the grain is straight or wavy or deeply interlocked. The wood is soft to hard, light to slightly heavy. It is suitable for light to medium construction under cover. Other uses include general planking, laminated boards, domestic flooring, general utility furniture, veneer and plywood[
Seed - requires 2 - 3 months cold stratification and is best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe[
]. Sow stored seed in a nursery seedbed as early in the year as possible[
]. Protect the seed from mice etc. The seed can be rather slow, sometimes taking 18 months to germinate[
]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. Grow them on until large enough to plant out
Cuttings of half-ripe wood with a heel in a frame[
Softwood cuttings from strongly growing plants in a frame[
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