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Useful Tropical Plants

Pilocarpus pennatifolius

Lem.

Rutaceae

+ Synonyms

Pilocarpus pinnatus Mart. ex Engl.

Pilocarpus selloanus Engl.

Pilocarpus trijugatus Lem.

Common Name: Jaborandi

Pilocarpus pennatifolius
Paraguay-Jaborandi. A blühendes Zweigstück in natürl. Illustration of the leaves, flowers and fruits
Photograph by: Franz Eugen Köhler, Köhler's Medizinal-Pflanzen
Public domain
Pilocarpus pennatifolius Pilocarpus pennatifolius Pilocarpus pennatifolius Pilocarpus pennatifolius Pilocarpus pennatifolius Pilocarpus pennatifolius

General Information

Jaborandi is an aromatic, evergreen shrub or tree with a small, irregular crown; it can grow 3 - 9 metres tall. The crooked bole branches from low down, it can be 10 - 20cm in diameter. It grows 3 - 7 metres tall[
318
Title
Raintree Nutrition - Tropical Plant Database
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.rain-tree.com/plants.htm
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Detailed information on the medicinal uses of more than two hundred rainforest plants, mainly from S. America, with basic descriptions of the plants, their other uses etc.
].
An alkaloid isolated from the plant is commonly used in conventional medicine - the plant being gathered from the wild for this purpose. The leaves are also commonly used in herbal medicine.

Known Hazards

None known

Botanical References


Range

S. America - Argentina, Paraguay, southern, central and eastern Brazil.

Habitat

An understorey plant in the Atlantic rainforest, where it is found mainly on compacted, wet soils in dense forest undergrowth and on rocky soils on slopes[
625
Title
Brazilian Trees. Volume 3.
Publication
 
Author
Lorenzi. H.
Publisher
Instituto Plantarum De Estudos Da Flora; Brazil.
Year
2009
ISBN
85-86714-34-4
Description
Information on 350 species of Brazilian trees. Stunning photographs of each species, brief details on the plant, its uses and how to grow it from seed. A superb work, with the minor irritation that the translation from Portuguese is not of the best.
].

Properties

Medicinal Rating *  *  *
Other Uses Rating *  *
HabitEvergreen Shrub
Height5.00 m
Growth RateMedium
Cultivation StatusWild

Cultivation Details


Succeeds in full sun and in dappled shade[
625
Title
Brazilian Trees. Volume 3.
Publication
 
Author
Lorenzi. H.
Publisher
Instituto Plantarum De Estudos Da Flora; Brazil.
Year
2009
ISBN
85-86714-34-4
Description
Information on 350 species of Brazilian trees. Stunning photographs of each species, brief details on the plant, its uses and how to grow it from seed. A superb work, with the minor irritation that the translation from Portuguese is not of the best.
].
Plants have a moderate rate of growth[
625
Title
Brazilian Trees. Volume 3.
Publication
 
Author
Lorenzi. H.
Publisher
Instituto Plantarum De Estudos Da Flora; Brazil.
Year
2009
ISBN
85-86714-34-4
Description
Information on 350 species of Brazilian trees. Stunning photographs of each species, brief details on the plant, its uses and how to grow it from seed. A superb work, with the minor irritation that the translation from Portuguese is not of the best.
].

Edible Uses

None known

Medicinal

Jaborandi has long been used in traditional medicine in S. America, where native people have employed the plant as a natural remedy for epilepsy, convulsions, gonorrhoea, fever, influenza, pneumonia, gastrointestinal inflammations, kidney disease, psoriasis, neurosis, and as an agent to promote sweating. Extensive modern research has borne out the efficacy of many of these treatments.
The leaves contain a number of medically active constituents, including alkaloids; an essential oil; terpenes and tannic acid[
318
Title
Raintree Nutrition - Tropical Plant Database
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.rain-tree.com/plants.htm
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Detailed information on the medicinal uses of more than two hundred rainforest plants, mainly from S. America, with basic descriptions of the plants, their other uses etc.
].
The alkaloid pilocarpine has been shown to be responsible for much of the biological activity of the plant-especially its ability to induce sweating and salivation, as well as to lower intraocular pressure in the eyes (making it an effective treatment in certain types of glaucoma). This alkaloid has been isolated from the plant and is now widely used in conventional medicine for the treatment of glaucoma and as an agent to cause constriction of the pupil of the eye (useful in some eye surgeries and procedures)[
318
Title
Raintree Nutrition - Tropical Plant Database
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.rain-tree.com/plants.htm
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Detailed information on the medicinal uses of more than two hundred rainforest plants, mainly from S. America, with basic descriptions of the plants, their other uses etc.
].
Pilocarpine is even being used as a tool for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease in early stages; the eye constriction response to the alkaloid was found to be greater in Alzheimer's patients than in controls. Tablets of pilocarpine are also manufactured and prescribed to cancer patients to treat dryness of the mouth and throat caused by radiation therapy as well as to patients with Sjogren's syndrome (an autoimmune disease in which immune cells attack the moisture-producing glands causing dry mouth and eyes)[
318
Title
Raintree Nutrition - Tropical Plant Database
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.rain-tree.com/plants.htm
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Detailed information on the medicinal uses of more than two hundred rainforest plants, mainly from S. America, with basic descriptions of the plants, their other uses etc.
].
Another alkaloid in the leaf, jaborine, has been shown to counteract or decrease the effects of pilocarpine, which means that one cannot simply relate the effective dosage of a leaf extract based solely upon the pilocarpine content of the extract.

The leaves are considered antiinflammatory, cardiac, diaphoretic, diuretic, febrifuge, galactagogue, sedative and sialagogue[
46
Title
Dictionary of Economic Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Uphof. J. C. Th.
Publisher
Weinheim
Year
1959
ISBN
-
Description
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
,
318
Title
Raintree Nutrition - Tropical Plant Database
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.rain-tree.com/plants.htm
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Detailed information on the medicinal uses of more than two hundred rainforest plants, mainly from S. America, with basic descriptions of the plants, their other uses etc.
,
476
Title
Handbook of S. American Indians.
Publication
Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 143
Author
Steward J. H. (Editor)
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
US Government Printing Office; Washington
Year
1946 - 1950
ISBN
 
Description
In six volumes, a detailed look at the native peoples of S. America - their culture, lifestyle, use of plants etc,
]. In large doses they are emetic[
46
Title
Dictionary of Economic Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Uphof. J. C. Th.
Publisher
Weinheim
Year
1959
ISBN
-
Description
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
]. They also act as a stimulant to the smooth muscles of the gastrointestinal tract, bronchi, bile duct and bladder[
318
Title
Raintree Nutrition - Tropical Plant Database
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.rain-tree.com/plants.htm
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Detailed information on the medicinal uses of more than two hundred rainforest plants, mainly from S. America, with basic descriptions of the plants, their other uses etc.
]. They have been used by herbalists for treating a range of complaints including bronchitis, asthma, pneumonia, diphtheria, colds and flu, laryngitis, renal insufficiency, hepatitis, diabetes, kidney diseases, oedema and fever[
318
Title
Raintree Nutrition - Tropical Plant Database
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.rain-tree.com/plants.htm
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Detailed information on the medicinal uses of more than two hundred rainforest plants, mainly from S. America, with basic descriptions of the plants, their other uses etc.
]. An infusion or cold maceration of the leaves induces sweating within 10 minutes - as much as 9 to 15 ounces of sweat can be excreted from a single dose![
318
Title
Raintree Nutrition - Tropical Plant Database
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.rain-tree.com/plants.htm
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Detailed information on the medicinal uses of more than two hundred rainforest plants, mainly from S. America, with basic descriptions of the plants, their other uses etc.
].
The pounded and parched leaves are applied externally to help heal wounds[
476
Title
Handbook of S. American Indians.
Publication
Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 143
Author
Steward J. H. (Editor)
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
US Government Printing Office; Washington
Year
1946 - 1950
ISBN
 
Description
In six volumes, a detailed look at the native peoples of S. America - their culture, lifestyle, use of plants etc,
].

Other Uses

The leaves are used as a hair tonic which is believed to open pores and clean hair follicles, prevent hair loss, and generally aid in the manageability of hair[
318
Title
Raintree Nutrition - Tropical Plant Database
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.rain-tree.com/plants.htm
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Detailed information on the medicinal uses of more than two hundred rainforest plants, mainly from S. America, with basic descriptions of the plants, their other uses etc.
].

The leaves contain an essential oil which gives off an aromatic balsam smell when they are crushed[
318
Title
Raintree Nutrition - Tropical Plant Database
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.rain-tree.com/plants.htm
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Detailed information on the medicinal uses of more than two hundred rainforest plants, mainly from S. America, with basic descriptions of the plants, their other uses etc.
].

The wood is of average texture, straight-grained, heavy, hard to cut, slightly susceptible to wood-eating organisms. Because of its small dimensions it is only used for fuel and to make charcoal[
625
Title
Brazilian Trees. Volume 3.
Publication
 
Author
Lorenzi. H.
Publisher
Instituto Plantarum De Estudos Da Flora; Brazil.
Year
2009
ISBN
85-86714-34-4
Description
Information on 350 species of Brazilian trees. Stunning photographs of each species, brief details on the plant, its uses and how to grow it from seed. A superb work, with the minor irritation that the translation from Portuguese is not of the best.
].

Propagation

Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a partially shaded position in a nursery seedbed. A germination rate of less than 50% can be expected, with the seed sprouting within 60 - 90 days[
625
Title
Brazilian Trees. Volume 3.
Publication
 
Author
Lorenzi. H.
Publisher
Instituto Plantarum De Estudos Da Flora; Brazil.
Year
2009
ISBN
85-86714-34-4
Description
Information on 350 species of Brazilian trees. Stunning photographs of each species, brief details on the plant, its uses and how to grow it from seed. A superb work, with the minor irritation that the translation from Portuguese is not of the best.
].

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