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Useful Tropical Plants

Phytolacca dodecandra

L'Hér.

Phytolaccaceae

+ Synonyms

Phytolacca abyssinica Hoffm.

Pircunia abyssinica (Hoffm.) Moq.

Common Name:

Phytolacca dodecandra
Ripe fruits
Photograph by: Stefan Gara
Creative Commons License
Phytolacca dodecandra Phytolacca dodecandra Phytolacca dodecandra Phytolacca dodecandra

General Information

Phytolacca dodecandra is usually a semi-succulent, straggling or scrambling evergreen shrub growing up to 4 metres tall[
328
Title
African Flowering Plants Database
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.ville-ge.ch/musinfo/bd/cjb/africa/recherche.php
Publisher
Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques.
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Contains information on over 150,000 plant names (including synonyms) giving a description and habitat, plus a distribution map.
]. Sometimes it becomes a climbing plant with stems up to 10, occasionally 20 metres long[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
]. The trunk is sometimes up to 35cm in diameter[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
Although toxic, this is a very popular medicinal plant in Africa, where it has a wide range of applications, many of which have been borne out by scientific research. The plant is also widely used as a source of saponins for washing and also to control disease-carrying molluscs. It is also sometimes used for food, even though there are many reports of toxicity. The plant is sometimes cultivated on a small scale in Africa, where the fruits are commonly sold as a soap substitute in local markets[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].

Known Hazards

Very poisonous[
328
Title
African Flowering Plants Database
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.ville-ge.ch/musinfo/bd/cjb/africa/recherche.php
Publisher
Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques.
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Contains information on over 150,000 plant names (including synonyms) giving a description and habitat, plus a distribution map.
].
Eating the fruits or leaves may cause acute poisoning, resulting in nausea, bloody diarrhoea, intense congestion of the stomach and intestines, vomiting, weakness, weak and irregular pulse, dilated pupils, swelling of the mucous membrane in the mouth and stupor; death may occur within a few days[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
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Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
Although the solutions of crushed fruits kill a range of aquatic life forms, including small fish, leeches, mosquito larvae, other stages of the bilharzia life-cycle (miracidia and cercariae), zebra mussels and tadpoles, the active ingredients are easily biodegradable and are eliminated from the water within 48 hours. Insect larvae and tadpoles are not affected at the concentrations that kill fish and snails[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].

Botanical References


Range

Tropical Africa - Guinea to Eritrea, south to Mozambique.

Habitat

Found in a wide range habitats, including dry or moist forest; woodland; bushland; thickets; grassland; often on or near river banks; on old forest land; plantations; at elevations of 500 - 2,400 metres[
328
Title
African Flowering Plants Database
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.ville-ge.ch/musinfo/bd/cjb/africa/recherche.php
Publisher
Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques.
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Contains information on over 150,000 plant names (including synonyms) giving a description and habitat, plus a distribution map.
].

Properties

Edibility Rating *  *
Medicinal Rating *  *  *
Other Uses Rating *  *  *  *
HabitEvergreen Shrub
Height4.00 m
PollinatorsInsects
Self-fertileNo
Cultivation StatusCultivated, Wild

Cultivation Details

A plant of the tropics. It grows best in areas with an annual rainfall of about 1,400mm and a distinct dry period[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
]. In areas with high evapotranspiration, especially at lower elevations (below 1,500 metres) partial shade should be available so that the plants do not burn and wilt[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
Prefers a sunny position[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
]. Full shade substantially lowers both fruit yield and saponin concentration[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
]. The plant is found in the wild in humid, weakly acidic soils that contain high levels of organic matter[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
In some areas the plant can flower and fruit all year round, though in others it tends to have two flowering periods a year[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
Annual fruit yield increases with the age of the plant up to about 15 years, with the greatest increase occurring between the first and third year[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
In a field trial in Ethiopia, different cultivars yielded from 1,050 - 2,750 kg/ha of dried fruits, with a saponin content of 20 - 25%[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
]. The yield of dry fruits can increase to 3,000 kg/ha in the fourth year after planting, slowly rising to a maximum of about 4,000 kg/ha[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
]. The content of saponins varies seasonally: fruits harvested during the dry season just before the onset of the rains have the highest content.[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
The harvested fruits must be dried immediately after collection in the open under shade or in the sun. Whole and powdered fruits can be stored at room temperature for up to 4 years without losing potency. Crushed fresh fruits or solutions prepared from them lose their potency within a few days. While grinding the dried fruits care should be taken protect the eyes from the irritating dust[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
Young plants establish well and grow away quickly. From seed, they commence flowering when only two years old, whilst from cuttings they flower when only 6 months old[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
A well-established plant has only a few but long roots that reach great depths[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
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Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
Several highly molluscicidal and productive cultivars have been selected, and agronomic trials of the plant have been effected in eastern and southern Africa[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
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ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
A dioecious species - both male and female forms need to be grown if fruit and seeds are required.

Edible Uses

Young leaves and stems - cooked[
46
Title
Dictionary of Economic Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Uphof. J. C. Th.
Publisher
Weinheim
Year
1959
ISBN
-
Description
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
]. There is considerable difference in opinion about the edibility of the leaves, with them being eaten in soups and as a vegetable in some parts of Africa, whilst in other areas they are considered poisonous and are said to have caused the death of people eating them[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].

The fruits are eaten in parts of Africa[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
]. The fleshy fruit, which is up to 15 mm in diameter, consists of 4 - 5 one-seeded berries[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].

The leaf or fruit extract is sometimes added to drinks and foods as a stimulant, and is used to curdle milk[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
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ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].

Medicinal

Various parts of the plant are widely used in traditional medicine in Africa to treat a wide range of ailments, despite the toxicity of the plant[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
A number of studies into the plant have been carried out and the presence of a range of medically active compounds have been shown.
The leaves, fruits and roots contain numerous saponins (triterpenoid glycosides). These compounds cause haemolysis of red blood cells. On a dry weight basis, the fruit pulp contains 25% saponins; lipids (palmitic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid and a non saponifiable bright orange, waxy material); sugars; starches; pectins and gums; and a water insoluble fraction[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
The roots contain saponins of the phytolaccoside or esculentoside types. These compounds have shown anti-inflammatory activity[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
The aqueous extract from the roots has shown fungicidal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
Hydroalcoholic extracts of the aerial parts of the plant showed significant activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Histoplasma capsulatum var. Farciminosum, which causes epizootic lymphangitis[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
The leaf extract showed moderate activity against coxsackie virus in vitro[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
Butanol extracts of the fruits inhibit the growth of Trichomonas vaginalis, but fermented fruits were inactive[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
]. These extracts also showed spermatocidal properties in vitro and blastocidal activity when injected directly into the uterus of rabbits. Oral administration of a water extract of the aerial parts did not show a significant effect on reproduction in mice[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
The leaves and stems produce the antiviral protein dodecandrin, which is a ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP), similar to pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP), isolated from Phytolacca americana[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].

An extract of the roots, leaves, fruits and seeds is abortifacient, anthelmintic, diuretic, emetic, laxative, purgative and sudorific[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
]. It is used to treat oedema and intestinal problems such as diarrhoea and abdominal pain[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].

The leaves and the leaf-sap are cicatrizing, haemostatic, laxative and rubefacient[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
]. A decoction is given to newborn babies as a gentle laxative[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
]. The mashed leaves are eaten with banana as a stimulant and tonic, especially after childbirth[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
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Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
]. The boiled leaves, with chicken, are given to children with asthma and tuberculosis[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
The sap, or the fresh, dried or powdered leaves, are applied to wounds and skin ailments such as ringworm, scabies, eczema, psoriasis, leprosy, boils and vitiligo[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
]. The leaf sap is used as eye drops to cure conjunctivitis and river blindness, and as ear drops to treat otitis[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
]. The ground leaves are applied to tumours[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].

An infusion of the fruit or the root decoction is widely taken to induce abortion, to treat venereal diseases, bilharzia, rabies, malaria, sore throat and other respiratory problems, rheumatic pain and jaundice[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
The crushed roots and fruits are sometimes applied to wounds and skin ailments such as ringworm, scabies, eczema, psoriasis, leprosy, boils and vitiligo[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].

The root decoction is drunk to cause vomiting as part of the treatment of enlarged glands[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
]. The macerated leaves or root bark are used to treat epilepsy[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
]. An infusion of the root is taken to treat infertility[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].

Agroforestry Uses:

The plant is used in Ethiopia as a hedge[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
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Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].

Other Uses

A red dye is obtained from the berries[
46
Title
Dictionary of Economic Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Uphof. J. C. Th.
Publisher
Weinheim
Year
1959
ISBN
-
Description
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
,
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
]. In Zimbabwe the most common use of the fruits is to colour the floor in houses[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
A yellow dye is obtained from the leaves[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].

The fruits are rich in saponins. When dried, powdered and mixed with water, they yield a foaming detergent which is traditionally used for washing clothes, and also to wash the body[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
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http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
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Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
The fruits are harvested when fully grown, but still green, because the saponin content is then highest. Also, ripe fruits are hard to harvest as they fall from the plant and are eaten by birds. Complete fruit bunches are collected manually[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
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http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
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Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
Soap has also been made from the ashes of burnt plants as well as from the fresh leaves[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
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0
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Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].

The saponins in the unripe fruits have been shown to have strong molluscicidal activity against a range of water snails, and are readily soluble in water and easy to isolate. These properties are useful in the destruction of these snails, which can carry vectors of human diseases such as bilharzia (schistosomiasis). They are widely used to control bilharzia-transmitting snails, as they are a cheaper and less toxic product than synthetic molluscicides[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
]. However, the saponins are not active against the egg clusters of the snails[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
The saponins in the fruit pulp are not actively molluscicidal until they are combined with an enzyme in the seed - to secure contact between the saponins and the enzyme, and ensure the release of the molluscicidal saponins, it is important to finely crush the fruits before soaking them in water[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
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Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
The molluscicidal potency remains stable over a wide range of pH (5 - 9), in the presence of various concentrations of organic and inorganic matter and also after irradiation with ultraviolet light. In acute mammalian toxicity tests the fruit extracts were classified as either non-toxic or slightly toxic, except for the eye, in which they can cause severe irritancy. Eye protection is therefore recommended during fruit crushing and handling of dry powders. Ecotoxicity tests indicated that the crushed fruits are no more toxic than currently recommended synthetic molluscicides. Toxicological studies also showed that the fruit extracts do not have mutagenic or carcinogenic properties[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
There are two ways of applying the fruits for snail control. The first is to make a slurry of the dried and ground fruits in water. Shortly before application the solution is diluted with river water and administered by siphoning the liquid into the river from a barrel. The rivers are treated when the water level is low and the snails are concentrated in relatively small areas. The second way is to extract the active principles only. This method is suitable for larger water bodies such as lakes, where focal application of the molluscicide is required and sprayers have to be used. In order to avoid blockage of the spray nozzle, an extract has to be prepared. The best results are obtained by soaking the dried and powdered fruits overnight and using butanol to make the extract[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
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Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
Green unripe fruits contain more active saponins than ripe ones[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
Application of the fruit and leaf extract reduced the levels of damage caused by larvae of the maize stalk borer (Busseola fusca), but 2 applications were not sufficient to provide complete protection of maize against second generation larvae[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].

The stems are used as ties in the construction of huts and fences[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].

The plant is usually not used as firewood, as the smoke is believed to reduce the male sexual ability[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].

Propagation

Seed - germination can be improved by scarification with sand. The seed takes about 14 days to germinate[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
Fruits can be stored for up to one year without loss of viability, but after 4 years of storage, germination declines by 14%[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
Cuttings of non-woody shoots with 2 - 3 nodes, taken from the top or middle part of the plant[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
]. Rooting occurs with or without application of plant growth regulators[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
Cite as: Tropical Plants Database, Ken Fern. tropical.theferns.info. 2019-08-25. <tropical.theferns.info/viewtropical.php?id=Phytolacca+dodecandra>

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