Oryza eichingeri longiaristata Peter
Oryza sativa punctata (Kotschy ex Steud.) Kotschy
Oryza schweinfurthiana Prodoehl
Oryza punctata is a clump-forming, annual or perennial grass with erect or semi-erect stems; it can grow from 50 - 120cm tall, occasionally to 150cm[
Because they are a source of resistance to or tolerance of biotic and abiotic stresses, the most important use of the various species of wild rice is probably in breeding programmes to improve the species of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa, Oryza glaberrima). This species is sometimes harvested from the wild for local use of its seed, though it is seen mainly as a famine food for use when nothing better is available.
Tropical Africa - Cote D'Ivoire to Sudan, Uganda and Kenya, south through Tanzania to Zimbabwe, Swaziland and S. Africa, also in Madagascar.
Swampy locations, on stream banks, in pond margins and pools, seasonally inundated areas; the diploid form grows in open and semi-open areas, the triploid in semi-open and shaded; at elevations up to 1,200 metres[
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The diploid form of this plant grows best in open to semi-shaded areas, whilst the triploid is found in semi-shaded to shaded areas[
]. Both forms prefer a black clay or sandy soil[
The plant is a noxious weed in rice cultivation and a potential seed contaminant of rice cultivars[
Plants can be in flower at any time of the year[
Seed - cooked and eaten as a cereal, or boiled with milk or water[
]. Husking requires vigorous pounding, resulting in the grain being seldom whole when eaten[
]. The grain is usually considered a famine food and only used when better foods are not available[
Oryza punctata is considered a source of resistance to various diseases and pests affecting Oryza sativa, including bacterial leaf blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae) and brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens)[
Because they are a source of resistance to or tolerance of biotic and abiotic stresses, the most important use of the various species of wild rice is probably in breeding programmes to improve the species of cultivated rice[
Seed. The seed of wild rice less than 12 months old often exhibits strong dormancy, which implies (though this has not been established) that the seed retains its viability for a considerable period[
Heat treatment is generally effective in breaking dormancy - alternating temperatures between 34°c for 16 hours then 11°c for 8 hours is usually effective, though the time taken varies between species[
Surface sow the seed in light shade and do not allow to dry out. Seed should germinate within 7 days at 30°c[
]. Prick out 2 - 3 seedlings into individual pots when large enough to handle and, after a few days, move the diploid form to a sunny position. Grow on until large enough to plant out.
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