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Useful Tropical Plants

Macaranga tanarius

(L.) Müll.Arg.

Euphorbiaceae

+ Synonyms

Croton lacciferus Blanco

Macaranga molliuscula Kurz

Macaranga tomentosa (Blume) Druce

Macaranga vulcanica Elmer ex Merr.

Mappa moluccana Wight

Mappa tanarius (L.) Blume

Mappa tomentosa Blume

Ricinus tanarius L.

Rottlera tanarius (L.) Hassk.

Rottlera tomentosa (Blume) Hassk.

Common Name:

Macaranga tanarius
Small flowering tree
Photograph by: Tatters
Creative Commons License
Macaranga tanarius Macaranga tanarius Macaranga tanarius Macaranga tanarius Macaranga tanarius Macaranga tanarius

General Information

Macaranga tanarius is a fast-growing, dioecious shrub or small tree growing from 4 - 15 metres tall. It has a straight bole, up to 30cm in diameter[
266
Title
Flora of China
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/
Publisher
Missouri Botanical Garden Press; St. Louis.
Year
1994
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent, comprehensive resource in 25 volumes. In addition to the botanical information the flora also gives basic information on habitat and some uses. An on-line version is also available.
,
327
Title
Euphorbiaceae of Malesia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.nationaalherbarium.nl/euphorbs/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An online resource that is still being developed, it gives detailed botanical descriptions of plants in the family Euphorbiaceae found growing in Malesia (the region from Peninsual Malaysia through Indonesia, the Philippines).
,
345
Title
Minor Products of Philippine Forests
Publication
 
Author
Brown. W. H.
Publisher
Bureau of Forestry, Manilla.
Year
1920
ISBN
 
Description
A useful guide to some of the plants of the area, though terse on details. The book is out of copyright and can be legally downloaded from the Internet.
,
713
Title
Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.anbg.gov.au/cpbr/cd-keys/rfk/index.html
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An online resource giving botanical information, and a little bit about plant usage, for over 2,700 species of plants found in the Australian rainforest.
].
A multipurpose tree, it is harvested from the wild for its range of uses. The tree is sometimes grown as a pioneer in reforestation projects, and is also sometimes cultivated as an ornamental[
707
Title
Florabank Fact Sheets
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.florabank.org.au/lucid/key/Species%20Navigator/Media/Html/index.htm#D
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line publication. At present their are 132 species in the list, giving lots of information on growing and using the plants, plus information on their climatic tolerances, distribution maps and photographs.
].

Known Hazards

None known

Botanical References

266
Title
Flora of China
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/
Publisher
Missouri Botanical Garden Press; St. Louis.
Year
1994
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent, comprehensive resource in 25 volumes. In addition to the botanical information the flora also gives basic information on habitat and some uses. An on-line version is also available.
,
327
Title
Euphorbiaceae of Malesia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.nationaalherbarium.nl/euphorbs/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An online resource that is still being developed, it gives detailed botanical descriptions of plants in the family Euphorbiaceae found growing in Malesia (the region from Peninsual Malaysia through Indonesia, the Philippines).

Range

E. Asia - China, India, Myanmar, Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines, Australia, Solomon Isles, Vanuatu.

Habitat

Usually in very disturbed vegetation like scrub or abandoned shifting cultivation areas, often along roads, or along streams, at elevations up to 2,100 metres[
327
Title
Euphorbiaceae of Malesia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.nationaalherbarium.nl/euphorbs/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An online resource that is still being developed, it gives detailed botanical descriptions of plants in the family Euphorbiaceae found growing in Malesia (the region from Peninsual Malaysia through Indonesia, the Philippines).
]. Maritime forests in southern China[
266
Title
Flora of China
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/
Publisher
Missouri Botanical Garden Press; St. Louis.
Year
1994
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent, comprehensive resource in 25 volumes. In addition to the botanical information the flora also gives basic information on habitat and some uses. An on-line version is also available.
].

Properties

Weed PotentialYes
Edibility Rating *  *
Medicinal Rating *  *
Other Uses Rating *  *  *
HabitEvergreen Tree
Height15.00 m
Growth RateFast
PollinatorsWind
Self-fertileNo
Cultivation StatusOrnamental, Wild

Cultivation Details

A plant of the tropics and subtropics, where it is found at elevations up to 2,100 metres. It grows best in areas where annual daytime temperatures are within the range 20 - 30°c, but can tolerate 15 - 35°c[
418
Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.
]. When dormant, the plant can survive temperatures down to about 1°c[
418
Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.
]. It prefers a mean annual rainfall in the range 800 - 1,200mm, but tolerates 700 - 1,300mm[
418
Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.
]. The plant is found growing in Australia in areas with a mean annual rainfall in the range 950 - 4,000mm, with a distinct dry season[
707
Title
Florabank Fact Sheets
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.florabank.org.au/lucid/key/Species%20Navigator/Media/Html/index.htm#D
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line publication. At present their are 132 species in the list, giving lots of information on growing and using the plants, plus information on their climatic tolerances, distribution maps and photographs.
].
Prefers a sunny position[
707
Title
Florabank Fact Sheets
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.florabank.org.au/lucid/key/Species%20Navigator/Media/Html/index.htm#D
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line publication. At present their are 132 species in the list, giving lots of information on growing and using the plants, plus information on their climatic tolerances, distribution maps and photographs.
]. Grows in the wild on clay loam, sandy, and sandstone soils[
327
Title
Euphorbiaceae of Malesia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.nationaalherbarium.nl/euphorbs/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An online resource that is still being developed, it gives detailed botanical descriptions of plants in the family Euphorbiaceae found growing in Malesia (the region from Peninsual Malaysia through Indonesia, the Philippines).
]. Prefers a well-drained soil[
707
Title
Florabank Fact Sheets
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.florabank.org.au/lucid/key/Species%20Navigator/Media/Html/index.htm#D
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line publication. At present their are 132 species in the list, giving lots of information on growing and using the plants, plus information on their climatic tolerances, distribution maps and photographs.
]. Plants are tolerant of moderate levels of salt in the soil[
707
Title
Florabank Fact Sheets
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.florabank.org.au/lucid/key/Species%20Navigator/Media/Html/index.htm#D
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line publication. At present their are 132 species in the list, giving lots of information on growing and using the plants, plus information on their climatic tolerances, distribution maps and photographs.
]. Prefers a pH in the range 5.5 - 7, tolerating 5 - 7.5[
418
Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.
]. Tolerant of salt-laden coastal winds[
707
Title
Florabank Fact Sheets
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.florabank.org.au/lucid/key/Species%20Navigator/Media/Html/index.htm#D
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line publication. At present their are 132 species in the list, giving lots of information on growing and using the plants, plus information on their climatic tolerances, distribution maps and photographs.
].
The plant has escaped from cultivation in some areas where it is cultivated[
305
Title
Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.hear.org/pier/scientificnames/index.html
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A very good website detailing weed species that have been introduced into the Pacific Islands.
]. It has been classed as 'invasive' in Hawaii[
305
Title
Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.hear.org/pier/scientificnames/index.html
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A very good website detailing weed species that have been introduced into the Pacific Islands.
].
A fast-growing but short-lived tree, seldom surviving beyond 15 years[
418
Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.
,
707
Title
Florabank Fact Sheets
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.florabank.org.au/lucid/key/Species%20Navigator/Media/Html/index.htm#D
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line publication. At present their are 132 species in the list, giving lots of information on growing and using the plants, plus information on their climatic tolerances, distribution maps and photographs.
].
Plants respond very well to coppicing and pollarding[
707
Title
Florabank Fact Sheets
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.florabank.org.au/lucid/key/Species%20Navigator/Media/Html/index.htm#D
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line publication. At present their are 132 species in the list, giving lots of information on growing and using the plants, plus information on their climatic tolerances, distribution maps and photographs.
].
A dioecious species, both male and female forms need to be grown if seed is required[
327
Title
Euphorbiaceae of Malesia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.nationaalherbarium.nl/euphorbs/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An online resource that is still being developed, it gives detailed botanical descriptions of plants in the family Euphorbiaceae found growing in Malesia (the region from Peninsual Malaysia through Indonesia, the Philippines).
].

Edible Uses

The fruits are added to palm juice when it is boiled down into crystals, improving the quality of the sugar produced[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].

The bark and leaves, occasionally the fruits, are widely used in the Philippines in the preparation of a very popular fermented drink called 'basi', whch is made from sugarcane[
301
Title
Cornucopia II
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications, California.
Year
1998
ISBN
0-9628087-2-5
Description
The second edition of an excellent guide to the edible uses of plants, though it does not give any details of cultivation etc.
,
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
Basi is made from sugar-cane juice to which the bark and leaves, and sometimes other ingredients, are added. There are two qualities of basi: basi-nuang (carabao basi), which is harsh to the taste, strong, astringent, and not sweet; and basibabae, which has a soft, sweet taste. The latter is made from the more concentrated syrup[
345
Title
Minor Products of Philippine Forests
Publication
 
Author
Brown. W. H.
Publisher
Bureau of Forestry, Manilla.
Year
1920
ISBN
 
Description
A useful guide to some of the plants of the area, though terse on details. The book is out of copyright and can be legally downloaded from the Internet.
].
The juice is heated in open pans until it reaches a certain degree of concentration, which varies according to the quality of basi desired. When boiling begins, crushed leaves or powdered bark of binuiiga is added to the juice. The scum is removed while the mixture boils. When a desired concentration has been reached, the syrup is poured into large jars (tinajas) and allowed to cool. On the following day, a considerable quantity of crushed binuiiga leaves is put into the jars, which are then tightly covered. After two or three months, the crushed leaves are replaced by powdered bark, which is supposed to improve the flavor of the basi. The amount of bark used influences the quality very greatly, as increasing the quantity makes the basi more piquant and intoxicating. Aging is said to improve the quality - this is
frequently done in jars, which are buried underground[
345
Title
Minor Products of Philippine Forests
Publication
 
Author
Brown. W. H.
Publisher
Bureau of Forestry, Manilla.
Year
1920
ISBN
 
Description
A useful guide to some of the plants of the area, though terse on details. The book is out of copyright and can be legally downloaded from the Internet.
].
Other ingredients are sometimes added to the basi. The addition of the husks of cacao fruit or coffee beans makes the drink slightly bitter, powdered pepper gives it a pungent taste, while the bark of Eugenia cinnini is said to make it more astringent[
345
Title
Minor Products of Philippine Forests
Publication
 
Author
Brown. W. H.
Publisher
Bureau of Forestry, Manilla.
Year
1920
ISBN
 
Description
A useful guide to some of the plants of the area, though terse on details. The book is out of copyright and can be legally downloaded from the Internet.
].

Medicinal

A decoction of the bark is used as a treatment against dysentery and haemoptysis[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
,
360
Title
Philippine Medicinal Plants
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.stuartxchange.org/CompleteList.html
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A lovely site, giving brief details on the medicinal uses of several hundred (over 400 at the last count) plants in the Philippines, plus a picture of each plant.
].

The root is emetic[
360
Title
Philippine Medicinal Plants
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.stuartxchange.org/CompleteList.html
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A lovely site, giving brief details on the medicinal uses of several hundred (over 400 at the last count) plants in the Philippines, plus a picture of each plant.
]. A decoction is used as a treatment against fever and haemoptysis[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
,
345
Title
Minor Products of Philippine Forests
Publication
 
Author
Brown. W. H.
Publisher
Bureau of Forestry, Manilla.
Year
1920
ISBN
 
Description
A useful guide to some of the plants of the area, though terse on details. The book is out of copyright and can be legally downloaded from the Internet.
,
360
Title
Philippine Medicinal Plants
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.stuartxchange.org/CompleteList.html
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A lovely site, giving brief details on the medicinal uses of several hundred (over 400 at the last count) plants in the Philippines, plus a picture of each plant.
].

The leaves of this species are regarded as a contraceptive[
713
Title
Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.anbg.gov.au/cpbr/cd-keys/rfk/index.html
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An online resource giving botanical information, and a little bit about plant usage, for over 2,700 species of plants found in the Australian rainforest.
].
The powdered leaves are used in poultices for healing wounds[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].

The latex from stems is applied to toothaches[
360
Title
Philippine Medicinal Plants
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.stuartxchange.org/CompleteList.html
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A lovely site, giving brief details on the medicinal uses of several hundred (over 400 at the last count) plants in the Philippines, plus a picture of each plant.
]. The latex is sticky and waterproof, it has been used as a sutureless stitching for deep cuts[
360
Title
Philippine Medicinal Plants
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.stuartxchange.org/CompleteList.html
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A lovely site, giving brief details on the medicinal uses of several hundred (over 400 at the last count) plants in the Philippines, plus a picture of each plant.
].

The stem and leaves contain diterpenoids (e.g. Macarangonol), triterpenoids (e.g. Friedelin, ß-amyrin), and steroids (e.g. Sitosterol)[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
The bark contains ellagic acid, a tannin constituent[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].

Agroforestry Uses:

A fast-growing plant, it is favoured by disturbance and grows in gaps in well developed rain forest or on the margins of well developed rain forest. It is a typical regrowth species on the coastal lowlands[
713
Title
Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.anbg.gov.au/cpbr/cd-keys/rfk/index.html
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An online resource giving botanical information, and a little bit about plant usage, for over 2,700 species of plants found in the Australian rainforest.
]. It has been recommended as a pioneer species to provide shade and shelter in order to promote natural regeneration on deforested land[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].

Other Uses

A gum is obtained from the bark of the tree. It is used as a glue, particularly for joining together parts of musical instruments such as guitars and violins. The bark is tapped by V-shaped incisions, and the sap collected and used shortly afterwards. It is said that if the sap is allowed to stand until it becomes sticky, it is worthless for use as an adhesive[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
,
345
Title
Minor Products of Philippine Forests
Publication
 
Author
Brown. W. H.
Publisher
Bureau of Forestry, Manilla.
Year
1920
ISBN
 
Description
A useful guide to some of the plants of the area, though terse on details. The book is out of copyright and can be legally downloaded from the Internet.
].

The bark contains tannin, which is used for toughening fishing nets. Nets dipped in a decoction of the bark will stand the influence of seawater for a considerable amount of time[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. The bark only contains about 2% tannin, but this is enough for preserving ropes[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].

The leaves have been reported to dye matting black, like other Euphorbiaceae[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].

The bark is used for making food containers[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].

The wood is soft and light[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. It is not durable or resistant to termite attack but is fairly tough[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. The grain is straight or only shallowly interlocked, with a moderately fine and even texture[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. The wood is not much used, but pepper growers in southern Sumatra use it to make temporary ladders to harvest their crop and shoes are made from it in the Philippines[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
,
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
Macaranga yields a high-quality pulp and produces high-quality particleboard[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
Good firewood is provided by Macaranga tanarius[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].

Propagation

Seed - when sown with the adhering pulp, the seed have a germination rate of about 50% in 24 - 72 (max. 265) days[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
,
707
Title
Florabank Fact Sheets
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.florabank.org.au/lucid/key/Species%20Navigator/Media/Html/index.htm#D
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line publication. At present their are 132 species in the list, giving lots of information on growing and using the plants, plus information on their climatic tolerances, distribution maps and photographs.
].
Seed viability is reputed to be poor in ambient conditions[
707
Title
Florabank Fact Sheets
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.florabank.org.au/lucid/key/Species%20Navigator/Media/Html/index.htm#D
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line publication. At present their are 132 species in the list, giving lots of information on growing and using the plants, plus information on their climatic tolerances, distribution maps and photographs.
].

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