Castanea latifolia Blume
Cyclobalanopsis muricata (Roxb.) Oerst.
Cyclobalanus lamponga (Miq.) Oerst.
Lithocarpus grandifrons (King ex Hook.f.) A.Camus
Lithocarpus lampongus (Miq.) Rehder
Lithocarpus plumbeus (Blume) Soepadmo
Lithocarpus pruinosus (Blume) Rehder
Pasania grandifrons (King ex Hook.f.) Gamble
Pasania lamponga (Miq.) Gamble
Pasania plumbea (Blume) Oerst.
Pasania pruinosa (Blume) Oerst.
Pasania sundaica (Blume) Oerst.
Quercus grandifrons King ex Hook.f.
Quercus korthalsii Blume
Quercus lamponga Miq.
Quercus macrophylla Miq.
Quercus mappacea Korth.
Quercus muricata Roxb.
Quercus plumbea Blume
Quercus pruinosa Blume
Quercus sundaica Blume
Synaedrys grandifrons (King ex Hook.f.) Koidz.
Synaedrys lamponga (Miq.) Koidz.
Synaedrys pruinosa (Blume) Koidz.
Synaedrys sundaica (Blume) Koidz.
Lithocarpus sundaicus is an evergreen tree growing 10 - 36 metres tall[
]. The bole can be 20 - 90cm in diameter[
The tree is harvested from the wild for its timber and tannins, which are used locally. This is one of many timber-bearing species in the genus Lithocarpus that is harvested from the wild on a commercial basis and traded under the name Mempening[
Southeast Asia - Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines.
A canopy tree in primary forests, at elevations from sea-level up to 2,600 metres, but more commonly between 500 - 1,500 metres[
]. In Central and E. Java it is confined to pockets of everwet forest at higher elevations[
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Lithocarpus sundaicus is a plant of the moist tropics, where it is usually found at elevations up to 1,500 metres, exceptionally to 2,600 metres[
]. The genus as a whole usually grows in areas with year-round rainfall, disliking dry seasons.
Young plants usually grow sucessfully in the shade of woodland, but older trees like a more sunny position. Lithocarpus species are mainly found in well-drained soils, often growing on slopes; they tend to be tolerant of a range of soil textures and to prefer an acid to neutral pH.
In experimental plantations in Java it was found that the bark of trees as young as 5 years already contained large amounts of tannin (16.5 - 22% on a dry weight basis). A tree 8 metres tall, with a trunk diameter at breast height of 12 cm, has an average yield of 3.5 kg dry bark. The bark can easily be removed from the trunk[
The depressed ovoid seed is 13 - 20mm long and 16 - 20mm wide with a thick, woody shell[
Although we have no specific information for this species, the seeds of all the species of Lithocarpus are more or less edible and most if not all of them will have been used for food in times of shortage, when better foods were not available.
The seed is usually cooked before eating, though it can also be eaten raw. It can be eaten whole, though it is more commonly dried, then ground into a powder and used as a thickening in stews etc or mixed with cereals for making bread.
The main disadvantage of the seed is that it is often rich in tannins, making it bitter and astringent. These tannins can be largely removed by soaking the seeds in water then throwing the water away. The process should be repeated until the seed no longer tastes bitter.
The bark is a good source of tannins[
]. The air-dried bark contains around 15 - 22% tannins[
]. It can be used as a dye and preservative for ropes etc[
The heartwood is brownish to reddish-white; the sapwood is yellowish. The texture is rather coarse and uneven; the grain fairly straight but sometimes interlocked; there is a true oak-line silver figure prominent on the radial surface. The wood is strong to very strong; hard to very hard; moderately heavy to heavy. It is not durable when exposed or in contact with the ground and has poor resistance to termites. It is very liable to shrinkage and splitting, and even after accurate seasoning it is susceptible to considerable warping. It is easy to saw when green, but slightly difficult to work when dried; planing is easy and the planed surface is smooth; turned wood has a rough surface when finished. Nailing properties are poor.
A medium hardwood, it is used for medium to heavy construction under cover, construction of houses, bridges and sheds, interior finishing, fence posts, mining props, occasionally for furniture, boat building, tool handles, rice pounders etc[
The wood makes a good fuel and can be used to make charcoal[
Seed - it quickly loses viability if it is allowed to dry out. It can be stored moist and cool, but is best sown as soon as it is ripe in an outdoor seed bed, though it must be protected from mice, squirrels etc. Small quantities of seed can be sown in deep pots in a cold frame. Plants produce a deep taproot and need to be planted out into their permanent positions as soon as possible, in fact seed sown in situ will produce the best trees[
]. Trees should not be left in a nursery bed for more than 2 growing seasons without being moved or they will transplant very badly.
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