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Useful Tropical Plants

Khaya grandifoliola

C.DC.

Meliaceae

+ Synonyms

Khaya dawei Stapf

Khaya grandis Stapf

Khaya kerstingii Engl.

Khaya kissiensis A.Chev.

Khaya punchii Stapf

Common Name: Benin Mahogany

Khaya grandifoliola
Leaves
Photograph by: Ehoarn Bidault
Creative Commons License

General Information

Benin mahogany is a medium to large-sized tree that can grow up to 40 metres tall[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
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Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
]. It is usually deciduous in the dry season; the young leaves are strikingly reddish and often occur together with flowers[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
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Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
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Year
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Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
]. The bole, which can have buttresses up to 3 metres tall, is up to 120cm in diameter and can be branchless for up to 23 metres[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
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Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
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Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
]. It is often twisted or leaning near the top[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
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Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
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Year
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Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
The tree is heavily exploited in the wild for its valuable timber, which is traded internationally. It is occasionally grown in plantations within its natural area of distribution, e.g. in Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana, and trial plantations have been established in Indonesia[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
]. The tree is also planted as a roadside tree and ornamental shade tree[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
Exploitation is heavy: extraction of mature individuals from subpopulations has been comprehensive. Regeneration is poor away from parent individuals and is best at the savannah-forest boundary. The tree is classified as 'Vulnerable' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species(2010)[
308
Title
Flora Zambesiaca
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://apps.kew.org/efloras/fz/intro.html
Publisher
 
Year
0
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Description
An excellent online flora of plants from the Zambezi River basin. It lists a number of the plant uses as well as the habitats and botanical descriptions of the plants.
]

Known Hazards

The bark is used as a fish poison[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
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Website
http://www.prota.org
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Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].

Botanical References


Range

Western tropical Africa - Guinea-Bissau to Sudan, south to the Congo.

Habitat

Occurs in semi-deciduous forest, especially in drier types and in savannah, but in the latter case usually along watercourses[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
]. It can sometimes be found in rocky and hilly parts of moist semi-deciduous forest[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].

Properties

Conservation StatusVulnerable
Medicinal Rating *  *  *
Other Uses Rating *  *  *
HabitDeciduous Tree
Height30.00 m
PollinatorsBees, Moths
Cultivation StatusCultivated, Ornamental, Wild

Cultivation Details

A plant of low to mid elevations in moist tropical regions, being found at elevations up to 1,400 metres in areas where the annual rainfall is in the range 1,200 - 1,800 mm, and there is a dry season of 3 - 5 months[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
Prefers a moist but well-drained soils[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
]. In the wild it is locally common on alluvial soils in valleys[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
The growth rate of young trees can be quite good. In Nigeria saplings reached an average height of 4.2 metres, and a bole diameter of 7 cm, 4 years after planting[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
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Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
]. Trees planted in the open in the semi-deciduous forest zone of Cote D'Ivoire reached an average height of 13.5 metres and an average bole diameter of 17 cm after 10 years[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
]. However, trees planted in the evergreen forest zone only reached 9 metres in height and 11.5 cm in diameter after 8 years[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
]. In Nigeria, an average height of 21 metres after 20 years was recorded[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
Seeds can germinate in full sun as well as in the shade, but natural regeneration may be very sparse in the forest where seedlings often show very poor growth and do not survive long[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
]. Natural regeneration can be abundant in savannah which is close to the forest and protected from fire[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
The presence of endotrophic mycorrhizal fungi in nurseries is important; inoculation with Endogone spores markedly improved the growth of seedlings[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].

Edible Uses

None known

Medicinal

The bitter-tasting bark is used in traditional medicine. It is widely used as a treatment against fever caused by malaria, whilst decoctions are also taken to treat stomach complaints including gastric ulcers and diarrhoea caused by intestinal parasites; pain after childbirth; and gonorrhoea[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
The pulverized root bark is applied externally to treat skin diseases[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].

Research carried out has shown that bark extracts exhibit antimalarial activity. Several limonoids isolated from the bark and seeds have shown distinct antimalarial activity against chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum, particularly gedunin, 7-deacetylkhivorin, methylangolensate and 6-acetylswietenolide[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
]. The most active limonoid, gedunin, exhibited an additive effect when combined with chloroquine[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
The bark extracts have also shown hypoglycaemic, hypoproteinaemic and hypocholesterolaemic effects, giving good results for the treatment of gastric ulcers[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
]. They had positive effects on the production of red blood cells[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].

Agroforestry Uses:

The tree is planted along the banks of rivers in order to stabilize them[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].

Other Uses

The bark is used for washing cloth[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].

A gum obtained from the bark is extremely resistant to hydrolysis and highly acidic (pH 3.0 - 4.0)[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
]. It contains the sugars rhamnose, arabinose and galactose, as well as glucuronic acid and galacturonic acid[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
]. Research has shown that the gum can serve as a useful formulating agent in the pharmaceutical industry. It showed good properties for sustained-release tablets for up to 5 hours, whereas a combination with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose could be used to provide a release for longer periods[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
]. The gum was effective as a coating to extend the storage life of cassava roots, and it could also be used as ice cream stabilizer[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].

Extracts from the plant have shown pesticidal properties[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
]. Bark extracts showed nematicidal activity against Pratylenchus brachyurus, a nematode injurious to many crops worldwide[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
]. They inhibited egg-hatch in sugarcane cyst nematode (Heterodera sacchari)[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
]. Bark and seed extracts showed toxic effects on Aedes aegypti mosquitoes[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
]. Seed extracts resulted in high mortality in the cotton stainer (Dysdercus sp.)[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
The mexicanolide-type limonoids isolated from the seeds showed antifeedant activity against larvae of the Mexican bean beetle (Epilachna varivestis), a notorious pest of beans and other leguminous crops[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
Bark and seed extracts, as well as the limonoids khivorin isolated from the bark and fissinolide isolated from the seed, have molluscicidal properties[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].

The heartwood is pinkish brown, darkening to reddish brown upon exposure, and is usually distinctly demarcated from the 3 - 8cm wide band of pale brown to pinkish brown sapwood, at least in the dried wood. The texture is medium to rather coarse; the grain is usually interlocked, sometimes straight. Wood from savannah trees is reported to be darker than that of forest trees[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
]. The wood is light to moderately heavy; soft to moderately hard; moderately durable, being resistant to dry wood borers, fairly resistant to fungi, but susceptible to termites. It generally air dries rather slowly, but with little degrade; rates of shrinkage are moderate; once dry, the wood is stable in service[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
]. The wood is fairly easy to saw and work, with a moderate blunting effect on cutting edges; it can be finished to a smooth surface and takes an excellent polish; it holds nails and screws well, but it has some tendency to split; it has good gluing properties. The peeling properties are poor because of the higher density in comparison with Khaya anthotheca and Khaya ivorensis and the interlocked grain, but slicing gives a decorative veneer. The wood is valued for carpentry, joinery, furniture, cabinet work and decorative veneer. It is suitable for light construction, light flooring, interior trim, ship building, musical instruments, toys, novelties, carving, turnery and pulpwood[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
,
848
Title
Tropix 7
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://tropix.cirad.fr/en
Publisher
CIRAD
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line guide to the timbers of 245 species of trees.
]. Traditionally, the wood is used for furniture, household implements and dug-out canoes[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
The wood is also used as fuel wood and for charcoal production[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].

Propagation

Seed - does not require pre-treatment. It is best sown in seed beds in the nursery or in pots[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
]. Upon sowing, the seeds should be covered with only a thin layer of soil, or left partially uncovered, but should not be allowed to dry out[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
]. Germination takes 10 - 35 days - fresh healthy seeds have a high germination rate of about 90%, but this decreases rapidly to nearly zero after 2 months under natural circumstances[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
It has been recommended to provide light shade to young seedlings until they are 1 - 2 months old, but in Nigeria it was found that seedlings grew best with full light, watering at least every second day[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
]. Seedlings can be left in the nursery for about one year until they are 0.5 - 1 metre tall, after which the root system is pruned to a length of about 30 cm and most leaves stripped off before planting into the field[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].
The seeds are often already attacked by insects while they are still on the tree, and undamaged seeds should therefore be selected before sowing[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
]. The seeds can be stored in a cool place; it is recommended to add ash during storage to reduce insect attacks[
299
Title
Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.prota.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.
].

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