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Useful Tropical Plants

Jasminum grandiflorum

L.

Oleaceae


Jasminum grandiflorum was long considered to be conspecific with Jasminum officinale L., a native of the Sino-Himalayan region that is an old, popular jasmine widely grown in temperate climates for its fragrant flowers (common or poet's jasmine). It is much hardier than Jasminum grandiflorum for which it has also served as a budding rootstock in temperate climates[
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Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
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Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].

+ Synonyms

Jasminum aureum D.Don

Jasminum catalonicum DC.

Jasminum floribundum R.Br. ex Fresen.

Jasminum hispanicum DC.

Jasminum steudneri Schweinf. ex Baker

Common Name: Jasmin

Jasminum grandiflorum
The dense leafy growth can be used to create living screens in the garden
Photograph by: Yasagan
Creative Commons License
Jasminum grandiflorum Jasminum grandiflorum Jasminum grandiflorum

General Information

Jasminum grandiflorum is an evergreen or deciduous shrub, often scandent, usually producing stems 2 - 3 metres long, occasionally to 5 metres[
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Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
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http://proseanet.org/
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Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
In practically all countries in which jasmine occurs its fragrant flowers have been used since antiquity for personal adornment, in religious ceremonies, strewn at feasts and added to baths. Fresh flower production and distribution is a big industry, especially in the Middle East and the Mediterranean, but also in parts of South-East Asia[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
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Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
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Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
]. It is widely cultivated in warm temperate, subtropical and tropical climates all over the world for its scented flowers, as an ornamental and as a source of essential oil[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].

Known Hazards

None known

Botanical References


Range

East tropical Africa - Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, Uganda, Kenya, Rwanda; through Arabia to the Indian subcontinent and western China.

Habitat

Not known

Properties

Edibility Rating *  *  *
Medicinal Rating *  *  *
Other Uses Rating *  *  *  *
HabitEvergreen Climber
Height2.50 m
Growth RateSlow
PollinatorsInsects
Cultivation StatusCultivated, Ornamental, Wild

Cultivation Details

Jasminum grandiflorum can be grown from the warm temperate to the tropical zones. When grown commercially, plantations are usually below elevations of 500 metres[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
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Website
http://proseanet.org/
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Year
0
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Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
]. The plant is day-neutral, and floral initiation is promoted by high day and low night temperatures. Some cultivars can resist at least some frost[
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Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
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Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
Grows best in a sunny position, growth and flowering being depressed by shade[
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Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
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http://proseanet.org/
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Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
]. Preferring warm sunny conditions with adequate soil moisture, the plant can withstand short periods of very high temperatures[
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Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
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http://proseanet.org/
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0
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Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
]. Growth and flowering are depressed by low daytime temperatures and cool wet conditions[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
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Website
http://proseanet.org/
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Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
]. Some cultivars are fairly drought tolerant, although flowering is strongly reduced by moisture stress[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
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Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
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Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
]. Almost any well-drained soil is suitable, but sandy clays or loams with a pH between 6 - 8 are preferred[
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Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
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http://proseanet.org/
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0
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Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
]. Marshy, waterlogged or very stony soils should be avoided, as should saline soils[
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Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
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http://proseanet.org/
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0
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Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
The plant grows slowly for the first 2 years after planting, but first flowering starts at the age of 6 months. In the 3rd and following years flowering is profuse[
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Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
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http://proseanet.org/
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Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
Mature plants flower for 7 - 9 months per year in warm regions, 4 - 6 months in temperate regions[
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Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
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http://proseanet.org/
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Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
Seed set is usually very low and pollen sterility frequently above 75%[
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Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
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http://proseanet.org/
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Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
Flowers open early in the morning and oil content decreases considerably after 10 a.m. In Europe, flowers contain substantially more essential oil in August and September than in July and October[
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Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
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http://proseanet.org/
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0
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Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
Jasmine plantations usually remain productive for 10 - 15 years but perhaps much longer if well-managed[
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Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
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Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
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Year
0
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Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
Jasminum grandiflorum is a complex species with wild and cultivated populations[
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Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
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Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
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Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
Jasmine flowers are picked manually between dawn and 10 a.m., during the hot season in India even between 3 - 8 a.m. Preferably only half-opened and fresh fully opened flowers must be picked, not buds or old (yellowish) flowers, as these will depress the quality of the essential oil. Although rain makes the flowers almost useless, picking flowers in the rain should continue, to promote further flowering[
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Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
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http://proseanet.org/
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Year
0
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Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
An experienced picker can harvest 0.5 kg flowers per hour, but the pickers are usually young women and children, who achieve 2 kg in 5 hours[
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Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
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Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
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Year
0
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Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
Annual flower yield of jasmine varies from 5.5 - 12.5 t/ha, on average 5 - 8 t/ha. Modern commercial plantations average 8 - 10 t/ha. In Java, production is highest during the rainy season (30 kg/ha per day), and lowest during the dry season (4 kg/ha per day). Concrete yield is about 0.1%; up to 0.3% is reported from India. As an approximate guide, 1000 kg flowers yield 1 kg concrete when solvent extracted, half of this as absolute[
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Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
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Website
http://proseanet.org/
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Year
0
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Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
Jasmine flowers must be quickly processed, since delay substantially reduces essential oil content. Flowers should be kept shaded and cool between picking and processing and the processing facility should be close to the plantation. Freshly picked flowers can be stored in polythene bags at 15°c without loss of yield, quality or odour[
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Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
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Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
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Year
0
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Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
Jasmine oil can be obtained from flowers by steam distillation but the yield is very low. Jasmine concrete is obtained from flowers, formerly by enfleurage, currently by solvent extraction. In solvent extraction, flowers are washed up to 3 times with petroleum ether or, preferably, with hydrocarbon-free food-grade hexane; the extract is then distilled to remove the solvent, resulting in the concrete. Concrete is usually produced at the plantation, but absolute is produced where convenient, often in another country[
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Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
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Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
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Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].

Edible Uses

Jasmine absolute (the essential oil) and concrete (the waxy solid containing the essential oil) are used as additives in food and tobacco[
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Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
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Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
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Year
0
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Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].

Jasmine flowers are a popular flavouring in tea in countries such as China and India[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
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Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].

Medicinal

Jasmine oil or essence is used medicinally. It is said to stimulate the reproductive system as an aphrodisiac and as a muscle relaxant, by warming and softening nerves and tendons[
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Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
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Website
http://proseanet.org/
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0
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Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].

An infusion of the flowers is used to relieve coughs[
348
Title
Medicinal Plants of the Guianas
Publication
 
Author
DeFilipps, R. A.; Maina, S. L.; & Crepin, J.
Website
http://botany.si.edu/bdg/medicinal/index.html
Publisher
Smithsonian Museum
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A down-loadable PDF document of a book in pre-publication awaiting illustration. An excellent, if rather terse, guide to the traditional medicinal uses of the plants of the region
]. The flowers are also used to treat headaches (external application?[
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
]) weak eyes and scorpion stings[
240
Title
Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement).
Publication
 
Author
Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C.
Publisher
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi.
Year
1986
ISBN
-
Description
Very terse details of medicinal uses of plants with a wide range of references and details of research into the plants chemistry. Not for the casual reader.
].
Applied externally, an infusion of the flowers is used to treat skin diseases[
240
Title
Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement).
Publication
 
Author
Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C.
Publisher
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi.
Year
1986
ISBN
-
Description
Very terse details of medicinal uses of plants with a wide range of references and details of research into the plants chemistry. Not for the casual reader.
].

The leaves are chewed as a remedy for ulcers or eruptions in the mouth[
240
Title
Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement).
Publication
 
Author
Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C.
Publisher
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi.
Year
1986
ISBN
-
Description
Very terse details of medicinal uses of plants with a wide range of references and details of research into the plants chemistry. Not for the casual reader.
].

The fresh juice of the plant is applied to corns[
240
Title
Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement).
Publication
 
Author
Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C.
Publisher
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi.
Year
1986
ISBN
-
Description
Very terse details of medicinal uses of plants with a wide range of references and details of research into the plants chemistry. Not for the casual reader.
]. Mixed with oil, it is poured into the ears as a treatment for otorrhoea[
240
Title
Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement).
Publication
 
Author
Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C.
Publisher
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi.
Year
1986
ISBN
-
Description
Very terse details of medicinal uses of plants with a wide range of references and details of research into the plants chemistry. Not for the casual reader.
].

Agroforestry Uses:

Jasmine requires support, ranging from individual stakes and trellises to the post and wire systems used in vineyards. To lower plantation establishment costs it is common to intercrop in the first 2 years, as is done in India. In southern Italy intercropping is done in bergamot orange plantations which start producing after 10 - 15 years[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
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Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].

Other Uses

Jasmine concrete, the major jasmine product traded, is obtained by solvent extraction (using petroleum ether, hexane or liquid carbon dioxide) of the fresh flowers. It is normally a yellowish to reddish orange-brown waxy solid, only partially soluble in 95% alcohol with an odour like jasmine absolute[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
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Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].

Jasmine absolute (the essential oil), is a dark orange-brown viscous liquid, darkening with age to red-brown or even deep red. Its odour is intense floral, warm, rich, highly diffusive, with a peculiar waxy-herbaceous oily-fruity and tea-like undertone. Light may reduce the quality of the absolute, especially degrading the benzyl acetate and benzyl benzoate it contains. The major components from jasmine absolute (Egyptian samples) include: benzyl acetate, benzyl benzoate, isophytol, phytol, phytol acetate, linalool and methyl jamonate. Composition varies due to many factors, including the cultivar extracted; time of day the flowers were plucked; flower age; weather conditions; season of plucking; time between plucking and extraction; extraction method and extraction solvent.
Jasmine absolute is the major product of the flowers. It has a powerful and tenacious odour and is common in all kinds of perfumes[
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Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
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Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
Attar of jasmine, or East Indian jasmine oil, is prepared by water distillion of the flowers and collecting the distillate in a base oil such as Sandalwood oil[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
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http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
Perfumed oils are produced by extracting from the flowers with hot sesame or groundnut oil or by mixing the flowers with boiled sesame seed and subsequently expressing the seed oil[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
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Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].

The wax, which is the residue of the concrete after extraction of the essential oil,) can be used in soaps and is an excellent perfume fixative[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
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Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
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Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].

Propagation

Seed - although it can be propagated by seed, seed production is usually low, viability is seldom above 50% and seed remains viable for 6 months only[
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Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
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Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
Cuttings 12 - 20cm long should be taken from terminal shoots; treatment with a root stimulator increases the strike rate[
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Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
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http://proseanet.org/
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Year
0
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Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
Cuttings taken from shoot tips have given better results than semi-ripe cuttings. They are usually treated with a fungicide, placed in prepared planting holes and watered[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
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http://proseanet.org/
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0
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Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
Layering in the field is done with one-year-old shoots; a slanting cut is made approximately half-way through the shoot some 50cm from the end; the cut is buried about 10 - 15cm deep with the top remaining above ground. After about 4 - 6 months the rooted layers can be separated from the parent plant and transplanted[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
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Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
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Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
In warm temperate areas the plant is grafted on 2 - 3-year-old rootstocks of Jasminum officinale to give protection against frost. In warmer regions grafting is not needed[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].

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