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Useful Tropical Plants

Hymenaea courbaril

L.

Fabaceae

+ Synonyms

Hymenaea altissima Ducke

Hymenaea animifera Stokes

Hymenaea candolleana Kunth

Hymenaea multiflora Kleinhoonte

Hymenaea resinifera Salisb.

Hymenaea retusa Hayne

Hymenaea splendida Vogel.

Hymenaea stilbocarpa Hayne

Inga megacarpa M.E.Jones

Common Name: West Indian Locust

Hymenaea courbaril
Large tree
Photograph by: Mauroguanandi
Public domain
Hymenaea courbaril Hymenaea courbaril Hymenaea courbaril Hymenaea courbaril Hymenaea courbaril Hymenaea courbaril Hymenaea courbaril Hymenaea courbaril Hymenaea courbaril

General Information

West Indian locust is a noble, evergreen tree with massive spreading branches and a heavy, umbrella-shaped crown. It grows slowly, but can reach an eventual height of 30 metres, with some specimens up to 45 metres[
307
Title
Tropical and Subtropical Trees - A Worldwide Encyclopaedic Guide.
Publication
 
Author
Barwick. M.
Publisher
Thames & Hudson, London
Year
2004
ISBN
0-500-51181-0
Description
A superb book, very concise and well written, giving a wealth of information on 400 or more species including descriptions, habitat, cultivation details and plant uses. A wealth of colour photographs bring each plant vividly to life.
,
378
Title
Present and Potential Commercial Timbers of the Caribbean
Publication
USDA Agricultural Handbook No. 207
Author
Longwood.F.R.
Publisher
USDA Forest Service; Washington, DC.
Year
1962
ISBN
 
Description
Quite detailed information on more than 60 species of Caribbean timber trees, giving species descriptions, habitat, detailed info on the wood and some info on other uses. Available for download on the internet.
,
381
Title
Timber Trees of Meso America.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.unep-wcmc.org/forest/timber/workshops/reports/MA2005/Annex%202.pdf
Publisher
UNEP
Year
2005
ISBN
 
Description
A PDF document, published on the internet. Detailed reports on about 30 species of timber trees from Central America.
]. The straight, cylindrical bole can be unbranched for 12 - 24 metres and is usually 60 - 120cm in diameter, though specimens up to 150cm have been recorded[
378
Title
Present and Potential Commercial Timbers of the Caribbean
Publication
USDA Agricultural Handbook No. 207
Author
Longwood.F.R.
Publisher
USDA Forest Service; Washington, DC.
Year
1962
ISBN
 
Description
Quite detailed information on more than 60 species of Caribbean timber trees, giving species descriptions, habitat, detailed info on the wood and some info on other uses. Available for download on the internet.
]. Although the trees are usually evergreen, they can shed their leaves in a drought[
307
Title
Tropical and Subtropical Trees - A Worldwide Encyclopaedic Guide.
Publication
 
Author
Barwick. M.
Publisher
Thames & Hudson, London
Year
2004
ISBN
0-500-51181-0
Description
A superb book, very concise and well written, giving a wealth of information on 400 or more species including descriptions, habitat, cultivation details and plant uses. A wealth of colour photographs bring each plant vividly to life.
].
The tree is harvested from the wild as a local source of food, medicines and various commodities. It is exploited commercially for its timber and has also been planted as an ornamental in parks all over the tropical world[
307
Title
Tropical and Subtropical Trees - A Worldwide Encyclopaedic Guide.
Publication
 
Author
Barwick. M.
Publisher
Thames & Hudson, London
Year
2004
ISBN
0-500-51181-0
Description
A superb book, very concise and well written, giving a wealth of information on 400 or more species including descriptions, habitat, cultivation details and plant uses. A wealth of colour photographs bring each plant vividly to life.
]. It has limited ornamental use as a shade tree in parks and on streets because the heavy seed pods emit an offensive odour as they mature and can cause damage or injury when they fall[
381
Title
Timber Trees of Meso America.
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.unep-wcmc.org/forest/timber/workshops/reports/MA2005/Annex%202.pdf
Publisher
UNEP
Year
2005
ISBN
 
Description
A PDF document, published on the internet. Detailed reports on about 30 species of timber trees from Central America.
].
This taxon has a wide range and is considered to be common. The plant is classified as 'Least Concern' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species(2011)[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].

Known Hazards

None known

Botanical References

426
Title
Flowering Plants of Jamaica
Publication
 
Author
Adams. C.D.
Publisher
University of the West Indies; Jamaica.
Year
1972
ISBN
 
Description
A terse treatment of the flowering plants of Jamaica, with a botanical description of each plant, notes on habitat etc.

Range

S. America - Brazil, Bolivia, Peru, Colombia, Venezuela, the Guyanas; C. America - Panama to southern Mexico; Caribbean.

Habitat

Found in a wide range of habitats including tropical dry forest, transition to premontane moist forest, and tropical wet forest as well as subtropical moist forest[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
,
791
Title
Hymenaea courbaril (L.) Algarrobo, locust. Leguminosae. Legume family. Caesalpinioideae. Cassia sub-family.
Publication
USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, Institute of Tropical Forestry; . 5 p. (SO-ITF-SM; 27).
Author
Francis J.K.
Website
http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/30404
Publisher
USDA Forest Service; New Orleans.
Year
1990
ISBN
 
Description
A very detailed article on Hymenaea courbaril. It can be downloaded from the internet.
].

Properties

Conservation StatusLeast Concern
Edibility Rating *  *  *
Medicinal Rating *  *  *
Other Uses Rating *  *  *  *
HabitEvergreen Tree
Height30.00 m
Growth RateSlow
PollinatorsBats
Self-fertileNo
Cultivation StatusOrnamental, Wild

Cultivation Details

Grows well in lowland tropical and subtropical areas up to an altitude of 900 metres[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. It prefers a mean annual temperature in the range 20 - 30°c, with a mean annual rainfall of 1,500 - 3,000mm, which can be evenly distributed through the year or monsoonal[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. It can tolerate 4 months or more of drought[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
,
791
Title
Hymenaea courbaril (L.) Algarrobo, locust. Leguminosae. Legume family. Caesalpinioideae. Cassia sub-family.
Publication
USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, Institute of Tropical Forestry; . 5 p. (SO-ITF-SM; 27).
Author
Francis J.K.
Website
http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/30404
Publisher
USDA Forest Service; New Orleans.
Year
1990
ISBN
 
Description
A very detailed article on Hymenaea courbaril. It can be downloaded from the internet.
].
Young plants can tolerate some shade but require more sun as they grow with mature plants requiring a position in full sun[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
,
791
Title
Hymenaea courbaril (L.) Algarrobo, locust. Leguminosae. Legume family. Caesalpinioideae. Cassia sub-family.
Publication
USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, Institute of Tropical Forestry; . 5 p. (SO-ITF-SM; 27).
Author
Francis J.K.
Website
http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/30404
Publisher
USDA Forest Service; New Orleans.
Year
1990
ISBN
 
Description
A very detailed article on Hymenaea courbaril. It can be downloaded from the internet.
]. Tolerates and will grow on all textures of soil from sand to clay but develops best on deep, fertile, moist and well-drained sandy soils[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
,
791
Title
Hymenaea courbaril (L.) Algarrobo, locust. Leguminosae. Legume family. Caesalpinioideae. Cassia sub-family.
Publication
USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, Institute of Tropical Forestry; . 5 p. (SO-ITF-SM; 27).
Author
Francis J.K.
Website
http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/30404
Publisher
USDA Forest Service; New Orleans.
Year
1990
ISBN
 
Description
A very detailed article on Hymenaea courbaril. It can be downloaded from the internet.
]. Tolerates poor fertility soils and waterlogging[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. Established plants are drought tolerant[
307
Title
Tropical and Subtropical Trees - A Worldwide Encyclopaedic Guide.
Publication
 
Author
Barwick. M.
Publisher
Thames & Hudson, London
Year
2004
ISBN
0-500-51181-0
Description
A superb book, very concise and well written, giving a wealth of information on 400 or more species including descriptions, habitat, cultivation details and plant uses. A wealth of colour photographs bring each plant vividly to life.
]. Succeeds in a pH in the range 4.8 - 6.8[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
,
791
Title
Hymenaea courbaril (L.) Algarrobo, locust. Leguminosae. Legume family. Caesalpinioideae. Cassia sub-family.
Publication
USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, Institute of Tropical Forestry; . 5 p. (SO-ITF-SM; 27).
Author
Francis J.K.
Website
http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/30404
Publisher
USDA Forest Service; New Orleans.
Year
1990
ISBN
 
Description
A very detailed article on Hymenaea courbaril. It can be downloaded from the internet.
]. The tree develops best when grown on ridges or slopes and high riverbanks[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
Young plants usually grow at an angle with a drooping leader for their first 2 - 3 years, before straightening up and developing a straight bole[
791
Title
Hymenaea courbaril (L.) Algarrobo, locust. Leguminosae. Legume family. Caesalpinioideae. Cassia sub-family.
Publication
USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, Institute of Tropical Forestry; . 5 p. (SO-ITF-SM; 27).
Author
Francis J.K.
Website
http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/30404
Publisher
USDA Forest Service; New Orleans.
Year
1990
ISBN
 
Description
A very detailed article on Hymenaea courbaril. It can be downloaded from the internet.
].
Trees generally have a moderate rate of growth - in a good site they were up to 11 metres tall after 13 years, though in a poorer site that were only up to 9 metres after 20 years[
791
Title
Hymenaea courbaril (L.) Algarrobo, locust. Leguminosae. Legume family. Caesalpinioideae. Cassia sub-family.
Publication
USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, Institute of Tropical Forestry; . 5 p. (SO-ITF-SM; 27).
Author
Francis J.K.
Website
http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/30404
Publisher
USDA Forest Service; New Orleans.
Year
1990
ISBN
 
Description
A very detailed article on Hymenaea courbaril. It can be downloaded from the internet.
].
The plant commences fruiting when 8 - 12 years of age, so long as it is receiving full overhead light[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
,
791
Title
Hymenaea courbaril (L.) Algarrobo, locust. Leguminosae. Legume family. Caesalpinioideae. Cassia sub-family.
Publication
USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, Institute of Tropical Forestry; . 5 p. (SO-ITF-SM; 27).
Author
Francis J.K.
Website
http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/30404
Publisher
USDA Forest Service; New Orleans.
Year
1990
ISBN
 
Description
A very detailed article on Hymenaea courbaril. It can be downloaded from the internet.
].
A few to more than 100 pods are produced each year, though only part of a tree produces fruit in any one year[
791
Title
Hymenaea courbaril (L.) Algarrobo, locust. Leguminosae. Legume family. Caesalpinioideae. Cassia sub-family.
Publication
USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, Institute of Tropical Forestry; . 5 p. (SO-ITF-SM; 27).
Author
Francis J.K.
Website
http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/30404
Publisher
USDA Forest Service; New Orleans.
Year
1990
ISBN
 
Description
A very detailed article on Hymenaea courbaril. It can be downloaded from the internet.
].
Planting in the open, for shade and ornamental purposes, produces attractive and spreading trees more rapidly[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
Coppices well and thus maintains itself in frequently cut-over areas; however stumps of large trees do not coppice[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
,
791
Title
Hymenaea courbaril (L.) Algarrobo, locust. Leguminosae. Legume family. Caesalpinioideae. Cassia sub-family.
Publication
USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, Institute of Tropical Forestry; . 5 p. (SO-ITF-SM; 27).
Author
Francis J.K.
Website
http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/30404
Publisher
USDA Forest Service; New Orleans.
Year
1990
ISBN
 
Description
A very detailed article on Hymenaea courbaril. It can be downloaded from the internet.
].
There are conflicting reports on whether or not this tree has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, so it is unclear as to whether this tree fixes atmospheric nitrogen[
755
Title
Nodulation Plants in GRIN Taxonomy
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.ars-grin.gov/~sbmljw/cgi-bin/taxnodul.pl?language=en
Publisher
United States Department of Agriculture
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An online database listing plants that have either positive or negative reports on root and stem nodulation with nitrogen-fixing bacteria.
].

Edible Uses

Fruit - raw or cooked[
301
Title
Cornucopia II
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications, California.
Year
1998
ISBN
0-9628087-2-5
Description
The second edition of an excellent guide to the edible uses of plants, though it does not give any details of cultivation etc.
]. The dry, whitish-yellow pulp around the seed has a sweet flavour and is commonly eaten raw; used in making custards and ice cream; and fermented into an alcoholic beverage[
301
Title
Cornucopia II
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications, California.
Year
1998
ISBN
0-9628087-2-5
Description
The second edition of an excellent guide to the edible uses of plants, though it does not give any details of cultivation etc.
]. It is eaten like sweets by children in Jamaica[
301
Title
Cornucopia II
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications, California.
Year
1998
ISBN
0-9628087-2-5
Description
The second edition of an excellent guide to the edible uses of plants, though it does not give any details of cultivation etc.
]. The protein content is high for a fruit[
301
Title
Cornucopia II
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications, California.
Year
1998
ISBN
0-9628087-2-5
Description
The second edition of an excellent guide to the edible uses of plants, though it does not give any details of cultivation etc.
].
The pulp contains 3.2% sugar, 1.1% fat, and 35.8% crude fibre[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. It has its own peculiar smell and sweet flavour, slightly reminiscent of bananas, and is generally considered pleasant but not very attractive[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. The texture is that of dry flour turning to a paste in the mouth, and some people find this unpleasant[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. It is very dry and largely starchy, so it is a good source of calories[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. The fruit is an indehiscent oblong pod, 5 - 15cm long and 3-5cm wide, containing 3 - 4 large seeds[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
,
791
Title
Hymenaea courbaril (L.) Algarrobo, locust. Leguminosae. Legume family. Caesalpinioideae. Cassia sub-family.
Publication
USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, Institute of Tropical Forestry; . 5 p. (SO-ITF-SM; 27).
Author
Francis J.K.
Website
http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/30404
Publisher
USDA Forest Service; New Orleans.
Year
1990
ISBN
 
Description
A very detailed article on Hymenaea courbaril. It can be downloaded from the internet.
].

A tea made from the bark is a quite popular drink for lumberjacks working in the forests in Brazil, because it is a natural energy tonic[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].

Medicinal

The bark is analgesic, astringent, balsamic, depurative, febrifuge, haemostatic, pectoral, stomachic, tonic and vermifuge[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
,
348
Title
Medicinal Plants of the Guianas
Publication
 
Author
DeFilipps, R. A.; Maina, S. L.; & Crepin, J.
Website
http://botany.si.edu/bdg/medicinal/index.html
Publisher
Smithsonian Museum
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A down-loadable PDF document of a book in pre-publication awaiting illustration. An excellent, if rather terse, guide to the traditional medicinal uses of the plants of the region
,
739
Title
Medicinal Plants of Brazil
Publication
 
Author
Mors W.B.; Rizzini C.T.; Pereira N.A.
Publisher
Reference Publications; Michigan.
Year
2000
ISBN
0-917256-42-5
Description
An extremely concise book, listing approximately 1,500 species and varieties of plants with their botanical name, common name in Brazil, regions in Brazil where the plant is found, a brief list of uses and any medically active compounds in the plant.
]. It is commonly used in local folk medicine as a cure-all, being especially useful for coughs. Besides being used to give energy and stamina, a tea made from the bark has been used for centuries as a tonic for the respiratory and urinary systems by the indigenous people of the Amazon Basin. The tea is also used internally to treat stomach problems and back pains, as well as externally for athlete’s foot and foot fungus[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
,
348
Title
Medicinal Plants of the Guianas
Publication
 
Author
DeFilipps, R. A.; Maina, S. L.; & Crepin, J.
Website
http://botany.si.edu/bdg/medicinal/index.html
Publisher
Smithsonian Museum
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A down-loadable PDF document of a book in pre-publication awaiting illustration. An excellent, if rather terse, guide to the traditional medicinal uses of the plants of the region
]. It is known for its ability to fight fungus and yeast infections such as Candida albicans[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. The macerated bark is used as a treatment for diarrhoea[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].

The bark, sap or resin, and leaves are used medicinally for cystitis, hepatitis, prostatitis and cough[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].

The sap is used for treating coughs and bronchitis[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].
The resin and sap exuding from bore-holes in the bark is considered fortifying[
739
Title
Medicinal Plants of Brazil
Publication
 
Author
Mors W.B.; Rizzini C.T.; Pereira N.A.
Publisher
Reference Publications; Michigan.
Year
2000
ISBN
0-917256-42-5
Description
An extremely concise book, listing approximately 1,500 species and varieties of plants with their botanical name, common name in Brazil, regions in Brazil where the plant is found, a brief list of uses and any medically active compounds in the plant.
]. It is used for treating chronic cystitis, urine retention, anaemia, prostatitis, blennorrhagia and chronic bronchitis[
739
Title
Medicinal Plants of Brazil
Publication
 
Author
Mors W.B.; Rizzini C.T.; Pereira N.A.
Publisher
Reference Publications; Michigan.
Year
2000
ISBN
0-917256-42-5
Description
An extremely concise book, listing approximately 1,500 species and varieties of plants with their botanical name, common name in Brazil, regions in Brazil where the plant is found, a brief list of uses and any medically active compounds in the plant.
].
The resin and sap are used externally for treating fresh wounds[
348
Title
Medicinal Plants of the Guianas
Publication
 
Author
DeFilipps, R. A.; Maina, S. L.; & Crepin, J.
Website
http://botany.si.edu/bdg/medicinal/index.html
Publisher
Smithsonian Museum
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A down-loadable PDF document of a book in pre-publication awaiting illustration. An excellent, if rather terse, guide to the traditional medicinal uses of the plants of the region
,
739
Title
Medicinal Plants of Brazil
Publication
 
Author
Mors W.B.; Rizzini C.T.; Pereira N.A.
Publisher
Reference Publications; Michigan.
Year
2000
ISBN
0-917256-42-5
Description
An extremely concise book, listing approximately 1,500 species and varieties of plants with their botanical name, common name in Brazil, regions in Brazil where the plant is found, a brief list of uses and any medically active compounds in the plant.
].

The solid resin found at the base of the tree is balsamic, bechic, stomachic, tonic and vermifuge[
739
Title
Medicinal Plants of Brazil
Publication
 
Author
Mors W.B.; Rizzini C.T.; Pereira N.A.
Publisher
Reference Publications; Michigan.
Year
2000
ISBN
0-917256-42-5
Description
An extremely concise book, listing approximately 1,500 species and varieties of plants with their botanical name, common name in Brazil, regions in Brazil where the plant is found, a brief list of uses and any medically active compounds in the plant.
].

The fruit has a mild laxative effect[
739
Title
Medicinal Plants of Brazil
Publication
 
Author
Mors W.B.; Rizzini C.T.; Pereira N.A.
Publisher
Reference Publications; Michigan.
Year
2000
ISBN
0-917256-42-5
Description
An extremely concise book, listing approximately 1,500 species and varieties of plants with their botanical name, common name in Brazil, regions in Brazil where the plant is found, a brief list of uses and any medically active compounds in the plant.
]. It is also used to treat mouth ulcers[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].

The leaves and wood are used in the treatment of diabetes[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].

Other Uses

The roots and trunk yield a pale yellow or red resin-like gum known commercially as 'South American copal'[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
,
378
Title
Present and Potential Commercial Timbers of the Caribbean
Publication
USDA Agricultural Handbook No. 207
Author
Longwood.F.R.
Publisher
USDA Forest Service; Washington, DC.
Year
1962
ISBN
 
Description
Quite detailed information on more than 60 species of Caribbean timber trees, giving species descriptions, habitat, detailed info on the wood and some info on other uses. Available for download on the internet.
]. The gum exudes and forms hard lumps that become buried in the soil at the base of a tree. Sometimes as much as a barrel of gum has been found around the roots of a large tree or at the site of a former tree. The gum is used mainly in varnish but also for incense and local medicines[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
,
378
Title
Present and Potential Commercial Timbers of the Caribbean
Publication
USDA Agricultural Handbook No. 207
Author
Longwood.F.R.
Publisher
USDA Forest Service; Washington, DC.
Year
1962
ISBN
 
Description
Quite detailed information on more than 60 species of Caribbean timber trees, giving species descriptions, habitat, detailed info on the wood and some info on other uses. Available for download on the internet.
]. The copal is also used for patent leather and in stains for tin ware[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
]. About 35 tonnes/year are collected in Brazil for local use[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].

The thick bark is a good source of tannin[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].

The bark was traditionally used by S. American tribes to make lightweight canoes[
307
Title
Tropical and Subtropical Trees - A Worldwide Encyclopaedic Guide.
Publication
 
Author
Barwick. M.
Publisher
Thames & Hudson, London
Year
2004
ISBN
0-500-51181-0
Description
A superb book, very concise and well written, giving a wealth of information on 400 or more species including descriptions, habitat, cultivation details and plant uses. A wealth of colour photographs bring each plant vividly to life.
].

The hard, durable, tough wood is one of the best from the region. The heartwood is salmon pink to orange-brown when fresh, becoming russet to reddish-brown when seasoned, often marked with dark streaks; it is clearly demarcated from the 3 - 12cm wide band of white, grey, or pinkish sapwood. Texture is medium to rather coarse; grain mostly interlocked; lustre is golden; it is without distinctive odour or taste. The wood is heavy to very heavy; hard to very hard; elastic; durable, even in contact with the soil, being resistant to fungi, dry wood borers and termites. It seasons normally, with only a slight risk of checking and distortion; once dry it is moderately stable to stable in service. The wood has a fairly high blunting effect, stellite-tipped and tungsten carbide tools are recommended; except in planing, it can be machined to a smooth surface; nailing and screwing are good, but require pre-boring; gluing is correct for interior use only, but needs to be done with care because of the density of the wood. The wood has a wide range of applications, including for high class furniture, cabinet making, construction, heavy duty flooring, ship building, carving, turnery, tool handles etc[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
,
848
Title
Tropix 7
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://tropix.cirad.fr/en
Publisher
CIRAD
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line guide to the timbers of 245 species of trees.
].
The wood is used as a fuel and to make charcoal[
791
Title
Hymenaea courbaril (L.) Algarrobo, locust. Leguminosae. Legume family. Caesalpinioideae. Cassia sub-family.
Publication
USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, Institute of Tropical Forestry; . 5 p. (SO-ITF-SM; 27).
Author
Francis J.K.
Website
http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/30404
Publisher
USDA Forest Service; New Orleans.
Year
1990
ISBN
 
Description
A very detailed article on Hymenaea courbaril. It can be downloaded from the internet.
].

Propagation

Seed - freshly sown, still moist seed does not require pre-treatment, but if the seedcoat has dried and hardened then it will require some treatment to help it absorb moisture more rapidly. This can be done by soaking the seed for 12 hours in warm water - if it swells it can be sown, otherwise carefully nick the seedcoat, making sure not to damage the embryo, then soak for a few hours more before sowing[
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
]. Sow the seed in light shade in individual containers or a nursery seedbed. Treated seed usually starts to sprout after 8 - 12 days at an optimal temperature of 30°c[
325
Title
Seed Leaflets
Publication
 
Author
Various
Website
http://en.sl.life.ku.dk/Publikationer/Udgivelser/PopulaerPublikationer.aspx?katid={D28373CC-6EF3-4EF8-B097-6D83FABF209E}&serieid={9F1C3DB1-6E7B-4CF1-AF53-F480B0CB40EF}&sort=title
Publisher
Forest & Landscape. Denmark
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A series of leaflets, jointly produced by the University of Copenhagen and the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, focussing on seed information for a number species, but also giving a lot of other information about each plant.
]. A germination rate of 40 - 90% can be expected[
791
Title
Hymenaea courbaril (L.) Algarrobo, locust. Leguminosae. Legume family. Caesalpinioideae. Cassia sub-family.
Publication
USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, Institute of Tropical Forestry; . 5 p. (SO-ITF-SM; 27).
Author
Francis J.K.
Website
http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/30404
Publisher
USDA Forest Service; New Orleans.
Year
1990
ISBN
 
Description
A very detailed article on Hymenaea courbaril. It can be downloaded from the internet.
]. Seedlings grow better in a sunny position than in shade and are ready to plant out within 60 days from germination[
791
Title
Hymenaea courbaril (L.) Algarrobo, locust. Leguminosae. Legume family. Caesalpinioideae. Cassia sub-family.
Publication
USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, Institute of Tropical Forestry; . 5 p. (SO-ITF-SM; 27).
Author
Francis J.K.
Website
http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/30404
Publisher
USDA Forest Service; New Orleans.
Year
1990
ISBN
 
Description
A very detailed article on Hymenaea courbaril. It can be downloaded from the internet.
].
Seed can be stored for a year or more at 2 - 4°c in a sealed container[
791
Title
Hymenaea courbaril (L.) Algarrobo, locust. Leguminosae. Legume family. Caesalpinioideae. Cassia sub-family.
Publication
USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, Institute of Tropical Forestry; . 5 p. (SO-ITF-SM; 27).
Author
Francis J.K.
Website
http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/30404
Publisher
USDA Forest Service; New Orleans.
Year
1990
ISBN
 
Description
A very detailed article on Hymenaea courbaril. It can be downloaded from the internet.
].
Softwood cuttings in misted beds with steam or electrically heated soil[
303
Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant - its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.
].

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