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Useful Tropical Plants

Hydnocarpus pentandrus

(Buch.-Ham.) Oken

Achariaceae


The genus Hydnocarpus is currently (2015) under review and there seems no clear and generally accepted treatment currently available. Because different authorities are treating the genus differently, we have included several species here where we are uncertain if we are using the correct name - or even if we are including it more than once under different names. We have followed the treatment in GRIN for this species, though some other authorities are using Hydnocarpus laurifolius.

+ Synonyms

Chilmoria pentandra Buch.-Ham.

Hydnocarpus laurifolius Dennst. ex Sleumer

Marottia oleosa Raf.

Munnicksia laurifolia Dennst.

Common Name: Chalmugra

Hydnocarpus pentandrus
Close-up of the fruit
Photograph by: Venkatvadva
Creative Commons License
Hydnocarpus pentandrus Hydnocarpus pentandrus Hydnocarpus pentandrus Hydnocarpus pentandrus Hydnocarpus pentandrus

General Information

Chalmugra is an evergreen tree growing 9 - 15 metres tall[
304
Title
Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants
Publication
 
Author
Kapoor. L. D.
Publisher
CRC Press, Florida.
Year
2001
ISBN
0-8493-2929-9
Description
A very detailed book on some of the key Ayurvedic herbs, giving both technical and non-technical information on each plant. The whole is very well referenced.
].
A very important medicinal tree in India, where the fruits are commonly harvested from the wild both for local use and for trade. It is particularly valued in the treatment of leprosy and skin conditions. The oil from the seeds is also used as an illuminant in lamps, whilst the wood is also used locally.
Major threats to this species are loss of habitat and habitat fragmentation, unsustainable collection of the fruits for medicinal use, and predation by squirrels. Populations are believed to have been reduced by around 40% since the mid 20th century. The plant is classified as 'Vulnerable' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species(2013)[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].

Known Hazards

Although we have seen no specific information for this species, the seeds of many members of this genus contain cyanogetic glycosides[
218
Title
Medicinal Plants of China
Publication
 
Author
Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S.
Publisher
Reference Publications, Inc.
Year
1985
ISBN
0-917256-20-4
Description
Details of over 1,200 medicinal plants of China and brief details of their uses. Often includes an analysis, or at least a list of constituents. Heavy going if you are not into the subject.
,
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
]. In very small quantities this has been used medicinally, having been shown to stimulate respiration and improve digestion, it is also claimed to be of benefit in the treatment of cancer. In excess, however, it can cause respiratory failure and even death.

Botanical References

200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

Range

E. Asia - southern India.

Habitat

Forests[
146
Title
A Manual of Indian Timbers.
Publication
 
Author
Gamble. J. S.
Publisher
Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh
Year
1972
ISBN
-
Description
First written in the 19th century, but still a classic, giving a lot of information on the uses and habitats of Indian trees. Not for the casual reader.
]. Mainly found along the sides of watercourses, from moist deciduous to semi-evergreen forests[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].

Properties

Conservation StatusVulnerable
Medicinal Rating *  *  *  *
Other Uses Rating *  *
HabitEvergreen Tree
Height10.00 m
PollinatorsInsects
Cultivation StatusWild

Cultivation Details


Grows best on well-drained, sandy, alluvial flats and floodplains along rivers, or at least in moist but well-drained surroundings[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
,
1008
Title
The Chaulmoogra Tree and some Related Species - A survey conducted in Siam, Burma, Assam and Bengal
Publication
United States Dept of Agriculture, Bulletin No. 1057
Author
Rock J.F.
Publisher
Government Printing Office, Washington.
Year
1922
ISBN
 
Description
A review of various species in the genus Hydnocarpus that are the source of the medicinal oil Chaulmoogra.
].
Plants take from 20 - 25 years from seed before they start producing seeds[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].
Seeds tend to go rancid rather quickly. Therefore ripe fruits should be opened and the fruit pulp and aril removed from the seeds. Seeds are then washed and dried in the sun. Sun-dried seeds, either whole or broken, are cold-pressed or pressed under concurrent heating to extract the oil. The chemical composition of the end-product of these methods varies[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
A dioecious species, both male and female forms need to be grown if fruit and seed are required

Edible Uses

None known

Medicinal

The oil from the seed is alterative, antibacterial and stimulant[
304
Title
Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants
Publication
 
Author
Kapoor. L. D.
Publisher
CRC Press, Florida.
Year
2001
ISBN
0-8493-2929-9
Description
A very detailed book on some of the key Ayurvedic herbs, giving both technical and non-technical information on each plant. The whole is very well referenced.
]. It is often used, both internally and externally, in the treatment of lepromatous leprosy, and is effective in early cases in decreasing the size of nodules, anaesthetic patches and skin lesions[
46
Title
Dictionary of Economic Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Uphof. J. C. Th.
Publisher
Weinheim
Year
1959
ISBN
-
Description
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
,
304
Title
Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants
Publication
 
Author
Kapoor. L. D.
Publisher
CRC Press, Florida.
Year
2001
ISBN
0-8493-2929-9
Description
A very detailed book on some of the key Ayurvedic herbs, giving both technical and non-technical information on each plant. The whole is very well referenced.
]. The oil has also been recommended as a topical application to treat rheumatism, sprains and bruises, sciatica and chest complaints, and for dressing wounds[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
The seed oil is used in the treatment of leprosy, rheumatic arthritis, worms, diabetes, body swellings and other skin diseases[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
]. It is used in Ayurveda, Sidha and Folk systems of medicine in India[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].

The seeds are detergent[
304
Title
Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants
Publication
 
Author
Kapoor. L. D.
Publisher
CRC Press, Florida.
Year
2001
ISBN
0-8493-2929-9
Description
A very detailed book on some of the key Ayurvedic herbs, giving both technical and non-technical information on each plant. The whole is very well referenced.
].

The oil contains a number of medically active constituents, especially chaulmoogric acid and hydnocarpic acid[
304
Title
Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants
Publication
 
Author
Kapoor. L. D.
Publisher
CRC Press, Florida.
Year
2001
ISBN
0-8493-2929-9
Description
A very detailed book on some of the key Ayurvedic herbs, giving both technical and non-technical information on each plant. The whole is very well referenced.
].

Other Uses

A non-drying oil is obtained from the seeds[
46
Title
Dictionary of Economic Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Uphof. J. C. Th.
Publisher
Weinheim
Year
1959
ISBN
-
Description
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
]. It is used in lamps[
146
Title
A Manual of Indian Timbers.
Publication
 
Author
Gamble. J. S.
Publisher
Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh
Year
1972
ISBN
-
Description
First written in the 19th century, but still a classic, giving a lot of information on the uses and habitats of Indian trees. Not for the casual reader.
].

The oil-cake repels ants and other insects[
317
Title
Mansfeld's Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Plants
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://mansfeld.ipk-gatersleben.de/pls/htmldb_pgrc/f?p=185:3:4292127278597336
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Terse details of a huge range of useful plants.
].

The white wood is of fair quality and is occasionally used[
146
Title
A Manual of Indian Timbers.
Publication
 
Author
Gamble. J. S.
Publisher
Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh
Year
1972
ISBN
-
Description
First written in the 19th century, but still a classic, giving a lot of information on the uses and habitats of Indian trees. Not for the casual reader.
].
When it attains suitable dimensions, the wood of species in this genus is often used locally for house building (poles), temporary heavy construction, posts, fences, interior finishing, panelling and door and window frames[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].

Propagation

Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe, when it will usually germinate quickly. Germination of stored seed can be slow, with some species in the genus taking up to 2 years. Sow the seed in a shaded position in a nursery seedbed and keep moist. Grow on the seedlings in shade until large enough to plant out[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
Cite as: Tropical Plants Database, Ken Fern. tropical.theferns.info. 2020-09-22. <tropical.theferns.info/viewtropical.php?id=Hydnocarpus+pentandrus>

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