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Useful Tropical Plants

Hydnocarpus kurzii

(King) Warb.

Achariaceae

+ Synonyms

Taraktogenos kurzii King

Common Name: Chaulmugra

Hydnocarpus kurzii
Fruit, cut open to reveal flesh
Photograph by: Johannes Lundberg
Creative Commons License
Hydnocarpus kurzii Hydnocarpus kurzii Hydnocarpus kurzii Hydnocarpus kurzii Hydnocarpus kurzii

General Information

Chaulmugra is an evergreen tree that usually grows 8 - 20 metres tall, but with some specimens reaching 30 metres[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
,
451
Title
Flora Malesiana Series 1
Publication
 
Author
Various
Website
http://www.archive.org
Publisher
Nationaal Herbarium Nederiand, Universiteit Leiden branch
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A massive treatment of the plants of the Malaysian Archipelago. Much of it has been made available to download from the Internet
].
The oil from the seed of this tree was the first known effective treatment for leprosy and became the source of the first synthetic drugs to treat the disease. Although now largely replaced in conventional medicine by these synthetic drugs, it is still used traditionally to treat leprosy and other skin disorders. Mainly harvested from the wild, it is also cultivated in areas such as Southeast Asia, tropical Africa and tropical South America[
317
Title
Mansfeld's Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Plants
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://mansfeld.ipk-gatersleben.de/pls/htmldb_pgrc/f?p=185:3:4292127278597336
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Terse details of a huge range of useful plants.
].
Information from India indicates the species has declined by 50% in population numbers in the last 10 years[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
]. There is insufficient evidence regarding the status of this species and, consequently, it is presently classified as 'Data Deficient' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species(2010)[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].

Known Hazards

The seeds contain cyanogenic glycosides and are toxic. It is advised not to eat pigs nor fish that have been feeding on the seeds, as their flesh induces nausea and vomiting[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
In very small quantities cyanogenic glycosides have been used medicinally, having been shown to stimulate respiration and improve digestion, they are also claimed to be of benefit in the treatment of cancer. In excess, however, they can cause respiratory failure and even death.

Botanical References

451
Title
Flora Malesiana Series 1
Publication
 
Author
Various
Website
http://www.archive.org
Publisher
Nationaal Herbarium Nederiand, Universiteit Leiden branch
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A massive treatment of the plants of the Malaysian Archipelago. Much of it has been made available to download from the Internet

Range

E. Asia - northeast India, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam.

Habitat

Evergreen forests at elevations of 600 - 1,800 metres[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].

Properties

Conservation StatusData Deficient
Medicinal Rating *  *  *  *
HabitEvergreen Tree
Height15.00 m
PollinatorsInsects
Self-fertileNo
Cultivation StatusCultivated, Wild

Cultivation Details

A plant of the wet tropics, where it can be found at elevations up to 1,800 metres. The plant grows best in areas where annual daytime annual temperatures fall within the range 28 - 34°c, though it is tolerant of 7 - 42°c[
418
Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.
]. It is tolerant of temperatures to below 2.5°c[
418
Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.
]. It prefers a mean annual rainfall in the range 3,500 - 6,500mm, but can tolerate 2,000 - 8,000mm[
418
Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.
].
Succeeds in full sun and light shade[
418
Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.
]. Tolerant of a range of soils, preferring a pH in the range 4.5 - 5, but tolerating 4 - 5.5[
418
Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.
]. Grows best on well-drained, sandy, alluvial flats and floodplains along rivers, or at least in moist but well-drained surroundings[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
,
1008
Title
The Chaulmoogra Tree and some Related Species - A survey conducted in Siam, Burma, Assam and Bengal
Publication
United States Dept of Agriculture, Bulletin No. 1057
Author
Rock J.F.
Publisher
Government Printing Office, Washington.
Year
1922
ISBN
 
Description
A review of various species in the genus Hydnocarpus that are the source of the medicinal oil Chaulmoogra.
].
Seeds tend to go rancid rather quickly. Therefore ripe fruits should be opened and the fruit pulp and aril removed from the seeds. Seeds are then washed and dried in the sun. Sun-dried seeds, either whole or broken, are cold-pressed or pressed under concurrent heating to extract the oil. The chemical composition of the end-product of these methods varies[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
A dioecious species, both male and female forms need to be grown if fruit and seed are required

Edible Uses

None known

Medicinal

The oil extracted from the seeds, known as 'chaulmugra oil', has a long history of use in the treatment of leprosy[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
,
317
Title
Mansfeld's Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Plants
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://mansfeld.ipk-gatersleben.de/pls/htmldb_pgrc/f?p=185:3:4292127278597336
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Terse details of a huge range of useful plants.
]. When applied externally, and by direct infiltration of the lesions, it has been shown to be effective in decreasing the size of nodules, numb patches, and skin lesions[
555
Title
Medicinal Plants of Asia and the Pacific
Publication
 
Author
Wiart C.
Publisher
CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group; Florida.
Year
2006
ISBN
0-8493-7245-3
Description
An excellent look at a range of plants, in particular focussing on the active principles that could be responsible for the medical activities.
]. The oil has also been recommended as a topical application to treat rheumatism, sprains and bruises, sciatica and chest complaints, and for dressing wounds[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
The active principles in the oil are unusual cyclopentenic fatty acids including chaulmoogric acid. The precise molecular mycobactericidal mode of action is still unknown[
555
Title
Medicinal Plants of Asia and the Pacific
Publication
 
Author
Wiart C.
Publisher
CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group; Florida.
Year
2006
ISBN
0-8493-7245-3
Description
An excellent look at a range of plants, in particular focussing on the active principles that could be responsible for the medical activities.
]..
The oil contains chaulmoogric and hydnocarpic fatty acids[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
,
317
Title
Mansfeld's Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Plants
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://mansfeld.ipk-gatersleben.de/pls/htmldb_pgrc/f?p=185:3:4292127278597336
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Terse details of a huge range of useful plants.
].

A decoction of the bark is drunk as a general tonic to improve health and in the treatment of internal disorders and skin diseases[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
,
555
Title
Medicinal Plants of Asia and the Pacific
Publication
 
Author
Wiart C.
Publisher
CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group; Florida.
Year
2006
ISBN
0-8493-7245-3
Description
An excellent look at a range of plants, in particular focussing on the active principles that could be responsible for the medical activities.
].

The roots, as well as the seeds, are used by Thai traditional doctors in the treatment of skin diseases[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].

An exciting development from this plant is the observation that the oil, when applied to the skin, increases the strength of scar tissue and strengthens the collagen tissue in wounds. Hence some cosmetic and or dermatological application may be possible[
555
Title
Medicinal Plants of Asia and the Pacific
Publication
 
Author
Wiart C.
Publisher
CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group; Florida.
Year
2006
ISBN
0-8493-7245-3
Description
An excellent look at a range of plants, in particular focussing on the active principles that could be responsible for the medical activities.
].
In addition, the lignans hydnowightin, hydnocarpin, and neohydnocarpin have been isolated in the plant. These have been shown to have cytotoxic potential against various forms of cancer[
555
Title
Medicinal Plants of Asia and the Pacific
Publication
 
Author
Wiart C.
Publisher
CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group; Florida.
Year
2006
ISBN
0-8493-7245-3
Description
An excellent look at a range of plants, in particular focussing on the active principles that could be responsible for the medical activities.
].

Other Uses

None known

Propagation

Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe, when it will usually germinate quickly. Germination of stored seed can be slow, with some species in the genus taking up to 2 years. Sow the seed in a shaded position in a nursery seedbed and keep moist. Grow on the seedlings in shade until large enough to plant out[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
Cite as: Tropical Plants Database, Ken Fern. tropical.theferns.info. 2019-08-21. <tropical.theferns.info/viewtropical.php?id=Hydnocarpus%20kurzii>

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