Hancea pierrei (Hance) Pierre
Hopea avellanea F.Heim.
Hopea pierrei is an evergreen tree with a spherical crown, generally growing 15 - 30 metres tall but with records of trees up to 40 metres. The bole is sometimes straight but is often twisted and of poor shape; it is usually 50 - 80cm in diameter, occasionally to 180cm; and with stilt roots or 4 - 5 thin buttresses[
The tree yields a high quality timber and so is often harvested from the wild. It is also the source of a resin and has local medicinal use.
Populations in Cambodia are seriously reduced by past chemical warfare, exploitation and habitat reduction. The plant is classified as 'Endangered' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species(2011)[
Southeast Asia - Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia.
A canopy tree, mainly found in lowland evergreen rainforest on sandy soils, but also present in heath forest[
|Other Uses Rating||
|Cultivation Status||Cultivated, Wild
A plant of lowland on lower montane areas of the tropics, where it can be found at elevations up to 1,000 metres[
]. It is found in hot tropical monsoon climates with a dry season of 1 - 3 months, and also in areas with a more or less uniform rainfall regime. The mean annual rainfall is within the range 2,500 - 5,000mm; the mean annual temperature is 22 - 32°c, the mean maximum temperature of hottest month, 21 - 28°c and the mean minimum temperature of the coldest month 18 - 21°c. As an absolute minimum, a temperature of 12°c is tolerated[
Shade tolerant as a young plant but it becomes light demanding with maturity[
]. Found in the wild mainly in well-drained, sandy soils[
]. Requires an acid to neutral soil[
]. Tolerant of strong winds[
The bark contains tannins and is astringent[
The tree can be used for the revegetation of logged over areas[
]. This is not a true pioneer plant, because it needs partial shade in the early stages of development. However, it does regenerates rapidly and is thus often used on bare land for revegetation[
The smooth light bark is used to make circles, vases, ropes and papers[
The bark is a source of tannins[
A pale yellow resin obtained from the tree is used for torches and for caulking boats[
]. Dried and powdered, it is thrown upon burning charcoal to give a representation of gunfire in theatrical performances[
The heartwood is a pale straw colour, turning rapidly to clear brown on exposure, often with irregular, narrow streaks, which are grass green when just from the saw, but turn to dark greenish brown or nearly black; it is not clearly demarcated from the 4 - 8cm wide band of lighter coloured sapwood. The texture is fine to very fine; the grain straight, sometimes a little interlocked; there is a small, but very pretty, silver grain. The wood is moderately heavy to heavy; moderately hard to hard; somewhat durable. The wood seasons well, neither checking nor warping much; once dry it is moderately stable in service. It is easy to work. It is used in construction for items such as posts; beams, joists, rafters; flooring, sheathing and ceilings; it is also used for masts and spars; ship planking and decking; doors; moldings; pestle shafts in rice mills; carriage panels; furniture and cabinetwork; carpenter's sawframes. On account of its smooth straight grain and toughness, it should make excellent broom, rake, and hoe handles[
Seed - it has a very short viability[
]. Plants are generally established by using natural regeneration, direct sowing and wildlings[
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