Aquilaria bancana Miq.
Gonystylus hackenbergii Diels
Gonystylus bancanus is a tree growing from 18 - 42 metres tall. The straight and cylindrical bole can be branchless for up to 21 metres and 30 - 120cm in diameter[
]. When growing in wet ground, the tree usually produces many knee-roots (pneumataphores)[
This tree is the major source of the timber 'ramin' and it is commonly harvested from the wild for this wood, which is exported in large quantities from Sarawak, largely due to its ease of exploitation[
]. The aromatic heartwood is used locally as an incense.
Subpopulations of this species have been heavily depleted as the most important source of ramin timber. The species is also threatened in parts of its range by habitat loss. The tree is classified as 'Vulnerable' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species(2010)[
The inner bark contains numerous fine, brittle fibres, which break off and irritate the skin[
The pounded fruits are sometimes used as fish poison[
Southeast Asia - Malaysia, Indonesia.
Sometimes forming pure stands in lowland freshwater coastal swamps, (?on sandy soil), mostly subject to periodic inundation, but also in non-inundated areas at elevations up to 100 metres[
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A plant of lowland areas in the moist tropics, where it is rarely found at elevations over 100 metres[
]. It grows best in areas where the mean annual temperature is around 24 - 27°c and the mean annual rainfall is around 2,000 - 4,000mm[
Older plants succeed in a sunny position, but seedlings and saplings require some shade[
]. The plant is found in the wild on heavy alluvial clay in the inland swamps, or sometimes on coarse sand and white clays[
The heartwood is impregnated with an aromatic resin, possibly due to fungal action[
]. It is used locally as an incense[
The heartwood is white to light yellowish-white; it is poorly demarcated from the sapwood. The wood is moderately fine with an even texture[
]. It is very suitable for veneer and plywood, and highly valued for light construction and numerous uses where a clean, whitish timber is wanted. Among other things it is used for decorative cabinets, furniture, interior decoration, wall panelling, light flooring, toys, turnery, broom handles and other non-impact handles, venetian blind slats, dowels, rulers, picture frames, and drawing boards. Uses for general light construction include door and window frames, moulding, skirting, ceilings and partitions. Various other applications comprise planks, barrels, boxes and shipboards[
Seed - they have no dormancy and only a short period of viability so are best sown as soon as they are ripe. Pre-soaking them for 24 hours in warm water can speed up the germination process[
]. The seeds are sown in sand or a mixture of sawdust and soil (at a ratio of 2:1) in shady conditions in a nursery seedbed. The seedbed should be covered with transparent material (such as plastic) to avoid excessive moisture loss. The seeds start to sprout after about 5 days, and nursery germination is completed after about 30 days[
]. Prick out the seedlings into individual containers as soon as they are large enough to handle, using peat or peat + charcoal powder as the growing medium. Keep them in a shady position and, after about 8 - 11 months, when the seedlings are about 20 cm tall, they are ready for planting out[
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