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Useful Tropical Plants

Gigantochloa verticillata

(Willd.) Munro

Poaceae


There is no clear agreement over the correct name for this taxon. In some treatments it is seen as two distinct but closely related species (Gigantochloa pseudoarundinacea (Steud.) Widjaja, and Gigantochloa verticillata (Willd.) Munro)[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
]. Others, such as the GRIN database, treat it as Gigantochloa pseudoarundinacea. The Flora of China[
266
Title
Flora of China
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/
Publisher
Missouri Botanical Garden Press; St. Louis.
Year
1994
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent, comprehensive resource in 25 volumes. In addition to the botanical information the flora also gives basic information on habitat and some uses. An on-line version is also available.
], and the Kew 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families' both treat it as Gigantochloa verticillata (the treatment we are following here[
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
].

+ Synonyms

Arundo maxima Oken

Bambos verticillata Poir.

Bambusa excelsa (Roep. ex Trin.) Miq.

Bambusa pseudoarundinacea Steud.

Bambusa verticillata Willd.

Gigantochloa pseudoarundinacea (Steud.) Widjaja

Melocanna excelsa Roep. ex Trin.

Nastus verticillatus (Willd.) Sm.

Common Name:

Gigantochloa verticillata
Drawing of the leavs (Fig 3 - 5 only)
Photograph by: Flora of China Illustrations vol. 22, fig. 42, 3-5
Creative Commons License

General Information

Gigantochloa verticillata is an evergreen, perennial, densely clump-forming, bamboo that can grow 7 - 30 metres tall. The centre of the clump is irregularly raised above the ground. The thin-walled, erect, woody culms can be 5 - 13 cm in diameter at the base, with internodes 40 - 60cm long[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
,
361
Title
Bamboos of India: A Compendium
Publication
 
Author
Seethalakshmi K.K., Muktesh Kumar M.S.
Website
http://www.inbar.int/publication/txt/tr17/default.htm
Publisher
Brill.
Year
2002
ISBN
8186247254
Description
A very good book giving botanical descriptions of the plants with brief notes on subjects such as uses, habitat and range. It is also available to view on the Internet.
,
633
Title
Annals of the Royal Botanic Garden, Calcutta. Vol. 7
Publication
 
Author
Gamble J.S.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Bengal Secretariat Press; Calcutta.
Year
1896
ISBN
 
Description
A very comprehensive listing of the bamboos of India, as they were known at the end of the 19th Century. Includes some information on plant uses. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
].
The plant is widely cultivated in Indonesia (Java, Bali, Sumatra, Mentawai Islands) both for food and as a source of materials. It has been introduced to Peninsular Malaysia and India[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
,
317
Title
Mansfeld's Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Plants
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://mansfeld.ipk-gatersleben.de/pls/htmldb_pgrc/f?p=185:3:4292127278597336
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Terse details of a huge range of useful plants.
]. In Indonesia, this species is the second in importance after Gigantochloa apus and plays a prominent role in the rural economy. Local production and trade of culms and derived products are considerable, but no statistics are available[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
]. The plant is also often grown as an ornamental[
266
Title
Flora of China
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/
Publisher
Missouri Botanical Garden Press; St. Louis.
Year
1994
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent, comprehensive resource in 25 volumes. In addition to the botanical information the flora also gives basic information on habitat and some uses. An on-line version is also available.
].

Known Hazards

None known

Botanical References

266
Title
Flora of China
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/
Publisher
Missouri Botanical Garden Press; St. Louis.
Year
1994
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent, comprehensive resource in 25 volumes. In addition to the botanical information the flora also gives basic information on habitat and some uses. An on-line version is also available.
,
633
Title
Annals of the Royal Botanic Garden, Calcutta. Vol. 7
Publication
 
Author
Gamble J.S.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Bengal Secretariat Press; Calcutta.
Year
1896
ISBN
 
Description
A very comprehensive listing of the bamboos of India, as they were known at the end of the 19th Century. Includes some information on plant uses. It can be downloaded from the Internet.

Range

Unknown - the plant is only known in cultivation and its origins are obscure.

Habitat

Not known in a truly wild location.

Properties

Edibility Rating *  *  *
Other Uses Rating *  *  *
HabitEvergreen Bamboo
Height15.00 m
Cultivation StatusCultivated, Ornamental

Cultivation Details

A plant of the perhumid tropics growing at elevations from sea-level up to about 1,200 metres[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
]. It is found in areas with an annual rainfall in the range of 2,350 - 4,200 mm, an average temperature of 20 - 32°c and average relative humidity of over 70%[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
]. In Indonesia (West Java), the culms grown on hill slopes ( at elevations of 500 metres with an annual rainfall of around 4,200 mm) are stronger (higher specific gravity, bending and tensile strength) than culms grown in valleys[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
Grows best on sandy loams and alluvial soils[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
One year after planting of a cutting, 7 - 10 culms have emerged[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
]. Per year, about 8 - 9 culms per clump reach full size[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
Bamboos have an interesting method of growth. Each plant produces a number of new stems annually - these stems grow to their maximum height in their first year of growth, subsequent growth in the stem being limited to the production of new side branches and leaves. In the case of some mature tropical species the new stem could be as much as 30 metres tall, with daily increases in height of 30cm or more during their peak growth time. This makes them some of the fastest-growing species in the world[
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
].
A young culm grows fast, attaining full height in 3 - 4 months with an average growing rate of 3.4 cm per day[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
Bamboos in general are usually monocarpic, living for many years before flowering, then flowering and seeding profusely for a period of 1 - 3 years before usually dying. Flowering occurs when the clump is 50 - 60 years old; it flowers gregariously, after which the clump dies[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
First harvesting may start 3 years after planting, preferably in the dry season[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
]. It is recommended to harvest only 3-year-old culms and to cut just above the ground[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
]. To promote regeneration, it is recommended to earth up and to mulch the base of the harvested culms[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
The annual yield of mature culms from a plantation with 275 clumps per ha (6 m x 6 m) is estimated at 1,650 per ha or about 6 culms per clump[310. If converted to charcoal, about 18% good charcoal and 4% brand and broken charcoal are produced310].
Traditionally, the culms are left leaning upright against a tree for some days before being used. Sometimes culms are first soaked in running water or mud for some time[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
]. Experiments with preservation by soaking in a chemical solution of e.g. Caustic soda or boric acid show promising results[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].

Edible Uses

The young shoots are eaten as a vegetable, especially those of less robust forms[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].

Medicinal

None known

Other Uses

The canes are used for building material, water pipes, furniture, household utensils, chopsticks and toothpicks. They are also used to make basketry (although Gigantochloa apus is preferred), and musical instruments (although Gigantochloa atroviolacea is preferred)[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
The culm can range in length from 7 - 30 metres, they are 5 - 13 cm in diameter at the base, with internodes 40 - 60cm long and a thick wall up to 2 cm wide[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
]. The canes are green to yellow-green, yellow striped, initially with scattered appressed brown hairs on the upper parts, glabrous and smooth when older[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
The culms might be used to make charcoal[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
]. The energy value for charcoal made from the culms is about 30 000 kJ/kg[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].

Propagation

Gigantochloa pseudoarundinacea is only propagated vegetatively by rhizome, culm or branch cuttings. Cuttings from flowering clumps should be avoided because they will start flowering soon after planting. Culm cuttings have shown a survival rate of nearly 100%. In Indonesia, the best time for planting is in the rainy season from December to March. Recommended spacing is 8 m x 8 m, and high rainfall areas are preferred[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
Cite as: Tropical Plants Database, Ken Fern. tropical.theferns.info. 2018-11-12. <tropical.theferns.info/viewtropical.php?id=Gigantochloa+verticillata>

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