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Useful Tropical Plants

Fragaria × ananassa

(Duchesne ex Weston) Duchesne ex Rozier

Rosaceae

+ Synonyms

Fragaria × ananassa Duchesne

Fragaria × cultorum Thorsrud & Reisaeter

Fragaria × grandiflora Ehrh.

Fragaria × magna auct.

Fragaria bathonica Poit. & Turpin

Fragaria bonariensis Juss. ex Pers.

Fragaria calyculata (Duchesne) Duchesne ex Steud.

Fragaria caroliniana Poit. & Turpin

Fragaria caroliniensis Duchesne

Fragaria chiloensis auct.

Fragaria chiloensis ananassa (Duchesne ex Rozier) Ser.

Fragaria chiloensis ananassa Duchesne ex Weston

Fragaria chiloensis calyculata (Duchesne) Ser.

Fragaria chiloensis carolinensis Duchesne ex Weston

Fragaria chiloensis tincta Duchesne ex Sm.

Fragaria cuneifolia Nutt. ex Howell

Fragaria hybrida Duchesne

Fragaria latiuscula Greene

Fragaria suchiana Poit. & Turpin

Fragaria tincta Duchesne

Fragaria vesca ananassa (Duchesne ex Weston) Aiton

Potentilla × ananassa (Duchesne ex Weston) Mabb.

Common Name: Strawberry

Fragaria × ananassa
Cultivated fruits in Hawaii
Photograph by: Forest and Kim Starr
Creative Commons License
Fragaria × ananassa Fragaria × ananassa Fragaria × ananassa Fragaria × ananassa Fragaria × ananassa Fragaria × ananassa Fragaria × ananassa

General Information

The cultivated strawberry is a herbaceous perennial plant producing a rosette of leaves from a short central stem (the crown). The plant grows around 30cm tall and wide[
418
Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.
].
Unknown in the wild, the plant is widely cultivated, especially in the temperate zone but also at higher elevations in the tropics, for its edible fruit.

Known Hazards

None known

Botanical References

200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

Range

A hybrid of garden origin, arising in Europe around 1750 as the result of a cross between Fragaria chiloensis and Fragaria virginiana.

Habitat

Not known in the wild.

Properties

Edibility Rating *  *  *  *  *
HabitPerennial
Height0.30 m
PollinatorsInsects, Wind
Self-fertileYes
Cultivation StatusCultivated

Cultivation Details

Strawberries are essentially a species of temperate climates, but can be cultivated successfully at elevations above 1,000 metres in tropical latitudes. They grow best in areas where annual daytime temperatures are within the range 11 - 24°c, but can tolerate 6 - 28°c[
418
Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.
]. When dormant, they can survive temperatures down to about -15 to -20°c, but flowers can be severely damaged at -0.5 to -3°c[
418
Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.
]. They prefer a mean annual rainfall in the range 600 - 900mm, but tolerate 300 - 1,700mm[
418
Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.
].
Prefers a fertile, well-drained, moisture retentive soil in a sunny position[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
]. Tolerates semi-shade though fruit production will be reduced when plants grow in such a position. Prefers a pH in the range 6 - 6.8, tolerating 4.5 - 8.2[
418
Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.
].
During the growing season new plants are produced on runners - prostrate stems emerging from the leaf axils of mature plants. These runners are used as propagation material[
418
Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.
].
Most strawberry varieties are day-length sensitive and only flower at certain times of the year. In the tropics, where days are always short, flowers can be initiated throughout the year from the moment the plants have reached a certain minimum size. In the absence of winter cold few if any runners are formed, but as growing conditions are favourable, there are many crowns per plant. Cultivars, however, differ greatly with respect to chilling requirements and critical daylength (some are even day-neutral). In northern Thailand, at a latitude of 18°N, the cultivar 'Tioga' follows a clear seasonal pattern of growth - runners form throughout the rainy season from May to September; thereafter crowns form; flowering starts in October and fruit can be harvested from November to April or longer, depending on the onset of the rains[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
Although continuous flowering and fruiting is possible in the tropics, the crop in the rainy season is often not worthwhile because of a low growth rate, poor pollination and high incidence of fruit rot[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
There are only very limited cultivar collections in South-East Asia. Since 'Tioga' and other Californian cultivars are so much better than cultivars from higher latitudes, it makes sense to introduce and test the new cultivars released in California[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
The fruit can be harvested 180 - 270 days from planting - plants have an economic life of 2 - 4 years[
418
Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.
].
The plant thrives in mild climates, without extremes of temperature and humidity. Windbreaks, mulching and irrigation are recommended to limit stress. The plant requires a period of winter chilling to overcome the dormancy period, the chilling temperatures and period differ among cultivars[
418
Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.
].
Flowering and fruiting demand a fairly dry season. In waterlogged conditions soil fungi may kill the plant[
418
Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.
].
Average fruit yields range from 10 - 60 t/ha[
418
Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.
]. Average yields of 12.5 tonnes for the lowlands and 17.5 tonnes for the highlands of northern Thailand indicate that the strawberry can be a heavy cropper in the tropics[
310
Title
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://proseanet.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia.
].
Plants appreciate a mulch of pine or spruce leaves[
18
Title
Companion Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Philbrick H. and Gregg R. B.
Publisher
Watkins
Year
1979
ISBN
-
Description
Details of beneficial and antagonistic relationships between neighbouring plants.
].
Oat straw should not be used as a mulch since this can infect the strawberries with stem and bulb eelworm.
Strawberry plants are very subject to virus diseases, these are usually spread by an aphid. Plants tend to degenerate after a few years and need to be replaced. Seed is a safe means of propagation though, since this species is of hybrid origin, the seed will not breed true.
Strawberries are a good companion plant, growing well with bush beans, spinach, borage, lettuce and pyrethrum[
20
Title
Companion Planting for Successful Gardening.
Publication
 
Author
Riotte. L.
Publisher
Garden Way, Vermont, USA.
Year
1978
ISBN
0-88266-064-0
Description
Fairly good.
].

Edible Uses

Fruit - raw. Fruits of the best cultivars are sweet and succulent with an exquisite flavour[
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
]. Strawberries are a very popular fruit and are widely available in the summer. The fruit of some cultivars is up to 3cm in diameter[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
].
The fruits are a good source of vitamin C, they can be eaten fresh, frozen, in confectionery or made into jam, ice cream, or beverage[
418
Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.
].

Medicinal

None known

Other Uses

None known

Propagation

Seed - it can take 4 weeks or more to germinate. The seedlings are very small and slow-growing at first, but then grow rapidly. Prick them out into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and plant them out when large enough. This is a hybrid species and seed will not breed true, though this is the only way to develop new varieties.
Division of runners, preferably done in the rainy season in order to allow the plants to become established for the following years crop[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
]. The runners can be planted out direct into their permanent positions.
Cite as: Tropical Plants Database, Ken Fern. tropical.theferns.info. 2019-08-22. <tropical.theferns.info/viewtropical.php?id=Fragaria+%C3%97+ananassa>

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