Covellia macrophylla Miq.
Ficus hainanensis Merr. & Chun
Ficus hamiltoniana Wall.
Ficus macrocarpa H.Lév. & Vaniot
Ficus macrophylla Roxb. & Buch.-Ham. ex Sm.
Ficus oligodon Miq.
Ficus pomifera Wall. ex King
Ficus regia Miq.
Ficus rotundifolia Roxb.
Ficus roxburghii Steud.
Ficus roxburghii Wall. ex Miq.
Ficus sclerocarpa Griff.
Ficus scleroptera Griff.
Common Name: Roxburgh Fig
Roxburgh fig is a small, wide-spreading, evergreen tree growing up to 12 metres tall. The tree can have more than one bole, each of which can be 10 - 15cm in diameter[
]. The plant has very large, ovate leaves that can be up to 55cm x 30cm[
]. The plant may become briefly deciduous it exposed to cold spells[
The tree is harvested from the wild for its edible fruit, medicinal uses and its leaves, which are used as plates. The tree is cultivated in India and from Myanmar to Vietnam and SW China and Brazil for its edible fruits[
]. It is sometimes grown as an ornamental[
E. Asia - southern China, Pakistan, India, Bhutan, Sikkim, Nepal, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam.
Forests in moist valleys of southern China at elevations of 100 - 1,700, occasionally to 2,100 metres[
]. Often found along stream banks[
|Other Uses Rating||
|Cultivation Status||Cultivated, Ornamental, Wild
A plant of the moist, lowland tropics, where it is found at elevations up to 1,700 metres. It grows best in areas where annual daytime temperatures are within the range 15 - 25°c, but can tolerate 12 - 32°c[
]. Mature plants can be killed by temperatures of -2°c or lower, though new growth can be severely damaged ay 0°c[
]. It prefers a mean annual rainfall in the range 1,200 - 1,900mm, but tolerates 900 - 2,400mm[
Succeeds in full sun and in light shade[
]. Prefers a pH in the range 5.5 - 6.5, tolerating 5 - 7[
]. Prefers loose, moist soils with lots of organic matter[
]. The plant needs protection from drying winds[
Plants have a moderate rate of growth[
When pollinated with a small stick dipped in olive oil, the fruits are said to grow to 10cm in diameter[
The fruits are formed in large clusters on the trunk, on thin branches arising from the trunk or even on the roots of the plant. The base, therefore, is often covered with hundreds of fruits[
Fig trees have a unique form of fertilization, each species relying on a single, highly specialized species of wasp that is itself totaly dependant upon that fig species in order to breed. The trees produce three types of flower; male, a long-styled female and a short-styled female flower, often called the gall flower. All three types of flower are contained within the structure we usually think of as the fruit.
The female fig wasp enters a fig and lays its eggs on the short styled female flowers while pollinating the long styled female flowers. Wingless male fig wasps emerge first, inseminate the emerging females and then bore exit tunnels out of the fig for the winged females. Females emerge, collect pollen from the male flowers and fly off in search of figs whose female flowers are receptive. In order to support a population of its pollinator, individuals of a Ficus spp. must flower asynchronously. A population must exceed a critical minimum size to ensure that at any time of the year at least some plants have overlap of emmission and reception of fig wasps. Without this temporal overlap the short-lived pollinator wasps will go locally extinct[
Fruit - raw or cooked[
]. A sweet flavour[
]. The large figs are edible and are used in the preparation of jam, juice and curries[
]. Unripe fruits are used in salads[
]. The fruit is 3 - 5cm in diameter[
]. The fruit is depressed-globose to pear-shaped, up to 8cm in diameter[
The latex from the stems is applied to cuts and wounds[
The roasted fruit is used in the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery[
The tree is planted in erosion control programmes[
The leaves are used as plates[
Seed - germinates best at a temperature around 20°c[
Tip cuttings around 4 - 12cm long, taken from lateral branches[
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