Acmella lanceolata Link ex Spreng.
Amellus carolinianus Walter
Anthemis abyssinica J.Gay ex A.Rich.
Anthemis bornmuelleri Stoj. & Acht.
Anthemis bourgaei Boiss. & Reut.
Anthemis cotula Blanco
Anthemis cotuloides Raf. ex DC.
Anthemis galilaea Eig
Anthemis sulphurea Wall. ex Nyman
Anthemis viridis Blanco
Artemisia viridis Blanco
Bellis racemosa Steud.
Buphthalmum diffusum Vahl ex DC.
Chamaemelum foetidum Garsault
Cotula alba (L.) L.
Cotula prostrata (L.) L.
Eclipta adpressa Moench
Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk.
Eclipta angustifolia C.Presl
Eclipta arabica Steud.
Eclipta brachypoda Michx.
Eclipta ciliata Raf.
Eclipta dentata Wall.
Eclipta dichotoma Raf.
Eclipta dubia Raf.
Eclipta erecta L.
Eclipta flexuosa Raf.
Eclipta heterophylla Bartl.
Eclipta hirsuta Bartl.
Eclipta linearis Otto ex Sweet
Eclipta longifolia Schrad. ex DC.
Eclipta marginata Steud.
Eclipta nutans Raf.
Eclipta oederi (Murr.) Weigel
Eclipta palustris DC.
Eclipta parviflora Wall. ex DC.
Eclipta patula Schrad.
Eclipta philippinensis Gand.
Eclipta procumbens Michx.
Eclipta punctata L.
Eclipta simplex Raf.
Eclipta spicata Spreng.
Eclipta strumosa Salisb.
Eclipta sulcata Raf.
Eclipta thermalis Bunge
Eclipta tinctoria Raf.
Eclipta undulata Willd.
Eclipta zippeliana Blume
Ecliptica alba (L.) Kuntze
Eleutheranthera prostrata (L.) Sch.Bip.
Eupatoriophalacron album (L.) Hitchc.
Galinsoga oblonga DC.
Galinsoga oblongifolia (Hook.) DC.
Grangea lanceolata Poir.
Paleista brachypoda (Michx.) Raf.
Polygyne inconspicua Phil.
Spilanthes pseudo-acmella (L.) Murray
Verbesina alba L.
Verbesina conyzoides Trew
Verbesina prostrata L.
Verbesina pseudoacmella L.
Wedelia psammophila Poepp.
Wilborgia oblongifolia Hook.
Common Name: Han Lian Cao
Han Lian Cao is an erect or prostrate, branching annual or sometimes short-lived perennial plant, growing 10 - 80cm tall.
A popular herbal medicine in eastern Asia, where the plant is extensively harvested from the wild. It is also sometimes cultivated in Gabon as a pot-herb[
]. The plant is also sometimes cultivated for the compound wedelolactone, which is used in the pharmaceutical industry[
Widely spread through the tropics and warm temperate zones, possibly originally native to temperate and tropical America.
Usually found in poorly drained, wet areas; along streams and ditches in marshes; and on the dikes of rice paddies. However, it is also common in lawns and in upland conditions where rainfall is about 1,200 mm or more[
|Other Uses Rating||
|Cultivation Status||Cultivated, Wild
Requires a damp to wet soil and a position in some shade[
The plant is fast-growing and early flowering, able to produce 17,000 seeds from one plant. It has become a weed in many parts of the tropics and is often invasive[
]. It is a very common weed of rice fields, sugarcane fields and coconut plantations[
Tender leaves and young shoots - cooked and used as a vegetable[
]. The leaves are also used in chutneys[
This species is widely used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine, and in Ayurveda[
]. It is considered to be the best remedy for the hair, an excellent treatment for a range of skin disorders, and is also used as a rejuvenator and liver tonic[
]. The plant has been shown to contain isoflavonoids including wedelolactone and desmethylwedelolactone glucoside[
In trials, the plant has shown moderate activity against a variety of animal cancers[
Extracts have been used to treat carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage[
The whole plant contains the alkaloids nicotine and ecliptine as well as coumarin[
]. It is astringent, deobstruent, depurative, emetic, febrifuge, ophthalmic, purgative, styptic and tonic[
]. It is used internally in the treatment of dropsy and liver complaints[
], anaemia, diphtheria etc[
], tinnitus, tooth loss and premature greying of the hair[
Externally, the plant is used as an oil to treat hair loss and is also applied to athlete's foot, eczema, dermatitis, wounds etc[
]. It is applied to cuts, bruises and sores in order to stop bleeding and relieve pain[
The plant juice, mixed with an aromatic (essential oil?), is used in the treatment of catarrhal problems and jaundice[
The leaves are used to treat fevers, eye diseases, asthma, bronchitis, liver problems, diarrhoea and weak bladder[
]. A decoction is used to treat cancer[
The leaves are used in the treatment of scorpion stings[
], and as an antidote for snake bites[
The ground up leaves are rubbed on the head of infants as a remedy for convulsions, and are rubbed on the skin to make pigmented blotches on infants disappear[
]. The leaves are also used to treat a range of other skin problems including cuts, sores, pimples, rashes and various diseases, including leprosy[
]. The juice of crushed leaves is used in a decoction to wash the scalp for preventing hair loss[
The stem and leaves are used to treat anaemia and dysentery[
]. Aerial portions of the plant are reputedly effective in a beverage to remedy albuminuria[
The roots are emetic and purgative[
]. They are applied externally as an antiseptic to ulcers and wounds, especially in cattle[
The flowers are used to treat conjunctivitis[
A black dye is obtained from the plant[
]. A bluish-black dye is obtained from the juice of the leaves[
]. It is used as a hair dye and for tattooing[
Seed - requires light for germination and so should be surface sown or only just covered. Viability is at least 5 months at ambient temperatures, germination occurring between the temperatures of 10 - 35°c. Germination is significantly improved by alternating temperatures of 20°c and 35°c[